Bureaucracy of Repression: The Iraqi Government in Its Own Words (Google eBook)
Joost R. Hiltermann
Human Rights Watch, Jan 1, 1994 - Anfal Campaign, Iraq, 1986-1989 - 156 pages
VIII. A Narrative Road Map to the Discourse of Repression
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1988 Anfal campaign agents of Iran Ali Hassan al-Majid Amn offices Anfal campaign Anfal operation Arab Ba'ath Party arrested Autonomous Region Ba'ath Party Baghdad Branch Command captured chemical attacks civilians Confidential and Personal Corps Cover letter criminal deserter Date Directorate of Military Directorate of Security Dohuk draft dodgers Eastern Sector Erbil Governorate execution families Fight Hostile Activity Halabja Hassan al-Majid headquarters htikhbarat human rights Human Rights Watch Iranian Iraq's Iraqi government Iraqi state files Kirkuk Kurdish areas Kurdistan Democratic Party Kurds Merciful MEW ref Middle East Watch Military Intelligence names National Defense Battalions necessary measures Northern Bureau Command northern Iraq organizations Paragraph pro-government Kurdish militias prohibited areas prohibited for security referred regime regime's Regional Command Revolutionary Command Council saboteurs Saddam Hussein Security Committee Security Directorate Security of Erbil security reasons Shaqlawa Signature Subdirectorate of Military take the necessary Top Secret town uprising Yazidis
Page 72 - All persons captured in those villages shall be detained and interrogated by the security services and those between the ages of 15 and 70 shall be executed after any useful information has been obtained...
Page 68 - July 15, farming will not be authorized in [the area] during the coming winter and summer seasons, starting this year. 4. It is prohibited to take cattle to pasture within these areas. 5. Within their jurisdiction, the armed forces must kill any human being or animal present within these areas.
Page 73 - Those who surrender to the government or Party authorities shall be interrogated by the competent agencies for a maximum period of three days, which may be extended to ten days if necessary, provided that we are notified of such cases. If the interrogation requires a longer period of time, approval must be obtained from us by telephone or telegraph or through comrade Taher al-Ani. (7) Everything seized by the advisers [mustashars] or fighters of the National Defense Battalions [ie, the pro-government...
Page 11 - Stephen C. Pelletiere, The Iran-Iraq War: Chaos in a Vacuum (New York: Praeger, 1992), 65. 13. For purposes of this study, commands at division level or below (wing or regiment level for air forces) are considered "tactical
Page 64 - Comrade [al-Majid], member of the Regional Command, will have authority over all the state's civil, military, and security apparatuses to carry out this decree, in particular the authorities of the National Security Council and the Northern Affairs Committee. Third: The following authorities in the northern region fall under the comrade's authority and must implement all the decisions and directives issued by him, as by this order: 1 . The executive committee of the Autonomous Region of Kurdistan.
Page 9 - Then reports are generated on the actions that were taken in accordance with the directives, and these reports are sent back up the hierarchy, triggering new memoranda, new instructions, new reports. All decrees are numbered, and so is every piece of written communication. Most memoranda make reference to preceding correspondence and orders issued in years past. In the absence of a computerized index system, this...
Page 17 - Thus, a 1988 letter from the Command of the Oil Protection Forces in Kirkuk to the Security Directorate of al-Ta'mim Governorate states: We are sending to you the families - their numbers are given below - who surrendered to our forces in the area of Sofi Raza on April 15, 1988. Please take the necessary measures against them according to the directives of the Northern Bureau and acknowledge their arrival. 33 32 Literally: "Please, (under)take what is necessary.
Page 4 - Party since 1968, and for all practical purposes the party, through its secretary-general, Saddam Hussein, has the final word on all major issues affecting the country. The party has a mass membership, extending throughout public institutions, the armed forces, places of work, educational institutions, and local communities. Party membership is an Iraqi citizen's ticket to job promotion, but the reverse is also true: once special efforts are made to recruit a particular person, refusal to join may...
Page 11 - Iraqi chemical attack on Halabja." 13 In one very explicit case, an htikhbarat document states that "as a result of the bombing by our planes and our artillery on the area of Halabja and Khurmal, approximately 2,000 enemy forces of the Persians and agents of Iran were killed.
Page 72 - ... which the saboteurs -- the agents of Iran [ie the PUK], the offspring of treason [ie the KDP], and similar traitors to Iraq -- are still to be found shall be regarded as prohibited for security reasons. (2) The presence of human beings and animals is completely prohibited in these areas, and [these] shall be regarded as operational zones in which [the troops] can open fire at will, without any restrictions, unless otherwise instructed by our headquarters.