Landforms created by running water dominate the land surface of earth. However, although the role of water is seen everywhere, it is seen at its best in those regions where the climates are wet enough to support a forest vegetation with a continuous canopy. The seasonal fluctuations in the character of precipitation with snow in winter and rain in summer which characterize cool temperate forest climates and the legacies of recent past cold periods in high latitudes means that the landforms of the humid tropics should be regarded as the "normal" or "type" features due to erosion by running water. This discussion of humid landforms, together with J. A. Mabbutt's volume Desert Landformscompletes a series of seven volumes on systematic geomorphology. It attempts to break with traditional approaches and to discuss humid landforms from the standpoint of the humid tropics. In addition, it seeks to demonstrate that the processes creating and destroying landforms are also those that regulate biotic activity at the earth's surface. The approach followed in this book is to describe the processes affecting the evolution of landforms in terms of the circulations of energy, water and materials before introducing the complication of legacies of different ages from the past. Theories of landform evolution are briefly reviewed in the final chapter.
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HUMID LANDFORMS AND DENUDATION
HYDROLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL
Rain forest floor with slopewash accumulation
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affected alluvial fan areas Atherton Tableland Australia bank bed load bed material braided catchment channel pattern chemical clay minerals climatic change concave corrasion cycle debris decrease delta denudation system deposits depth discharge downslope downstream drainage basin drainage density duricrust energy environments equilibrium eroded erosion factors fall flood floodplain flow geomorphic geomorphology gradient Guinea hillslopes humid landforms humid tropics hydrological increase infiltration J. N. Jennings kaolinite lake landform evolution landforms landscape lateritic layers levees lithology longitudinal profile Malaysia mantle meander ment morphology occur Papua Papua New Guinea particles pebbles periods point bar pools processes produced Quaternary rainfall rapid regime regolith resistance riffles river channels rock runoff sand sandstones shear strength soil solifluction South Wales storm stream channels subsurface surface runoff tectonic temperate terraces tion transport Tricart tropical rain forest types uplift upstream valley floor variables vegetation velocity water movement waterfall weathering width zone