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Integrating sphere effect in whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy at violet green and
Experimental setup and MonteCarlo model for the determination of optical tissue properties
Direct measurement of laser fluence distribution and optoacoustic imaging in heterogeneous
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ablation rate absorbed absorption coefficient acoustic amplitude application biological tissues bladder bone C02 laser calculated carbonization cavitation cavitation bubble cells coagulation crater damage decrease dentin detected detector determined diameter diffuse diode effect emission emitting Erbium excimer laser experimental experiments fiber tip Figure fluence fluence rate fluorescence formation Gemert heat Holmium Holmium laser increase integrating sphere intensity investigated irradiation laser ablation laser beam laser fluence laser induced laser irradiation laser plume laser pulse laser radiation laser treatment layer liposomes liver measurements mechanical melanosomes method Nd:YAG laser obtained optical fiber optical properties parameters particle penetration depth photodynamic therapy photon plasma porcine pressure transient probe pulse duration pulse energy pulsed laser pyrolysis Q-switched reaction receiving fiber reflectance retina sample scattering coefficient sclera signal skin spectral SPIE surgery temperature thermal thickness threshold transmission tumor values vapour vitro vivo volatile volume wavelength zone