Recent Trends in Thermoelectric Materials Research III

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Terry M. Tritt
Gulf Professional Publishing, 2001 - Technology & Engineering - 287 pages
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Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The Willardson and Beer series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in producing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise that this tradition will be maintained and even expanded.

Thermoelectric materials may be used for solid state refrigeration or power generation applications via the large Peltier effect in these materials. To be an effective thermoelectric material, a material must possess a large Seebeck coefficient, a low resistivity and a low thermal conductivity. Due to increased need for alternative energy sources providing environmentally friendly refrigeration and power generation, thermoelectric materials research experienced a rebirth in the mid 1990's. Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 71: Recent Trends in Thermoelectric Materials Research: Part Three provides an overview of much of this research in thermoelectric materials during the decade of the 1990's. New materials and new material concepts such as quantum well and superlattice structures gave hope to the possibilities that might be achieved. An effort was made to focus on these new materials and not on materials such as BiTe alloys, since such recent reviews are available. Experts in the field who were active researchers during this period were the primary authors to this series of review articles. This is the most complete collection of review articles that are primarily focussed on new materials and new concepts that is existence to date.
  

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Contents

Quantum Wells and Quantum Wires for Potential Thermoelectric Applications
1
II Models
3
III ProofofPrinciple Studies
8
IV The Concept of Carrier Pocket Engineering
11
2 SiGe
26
3 Bi
44
VI Nanowires
54
3 Electronic Structure of Nanowires
58
III InPlane Carrier Transport in Bi2Te3Sb2Te3 Superlattices
179
IV Phonon Transport in Bi2Te3Sb2Te3 Superlattices
181
V Measurements of CrossPlane Thermal Conductivity
182
VI Lattice Thermal Conductivity in Superlattices
184
VII Mean Free Path Reduction in Superlattices
186
VIII Diffusive Transport Analysis
187
IX Phonon Reflection at Superlattice Interfaces
189
X Equivalence between Diffusive Transport and Localization
190

4 Doping of Bi Nanowires
68
5 SemiClassical Transport Model for Bi Nanowires
70
6 TemperatureDependent Resistivity of Bi Nanowires
83
7 Magnetoresistance of Bi Nanowires
96
8 Seebeck Coefficient of Bi Nanowires
103
9 Thermal Conductivity
107
10 Raman Spectra and Optical Properties
109
11 Comparison between Bi and Sb Nanowires
111
VII Summary
114
References
115
Thermoelectric Transport in Quantum Well and Quantum Wire Superlattices
123
II Semiquantitative Theory of the Power Factor
127
III Quantitative Theory of the Power Factor
134
1 Quantum Well Superlattices
135
2 Quantum Wire Superlattices
139
3 Results and Discussion
140
IV Lattice Thermal Conductivity and the Figure of Merit
149
V Summary
152
References
153
Thermionic Refrigeration
157
II Vacuum Device
160
III OneBarrier SolidState Device
163
IV Multilayer Devices
166
V Why Ballistic?
170
VI Discussion
172
Phonon Blocking Electron Transmitting Superlattice Structures as Advanced Thin Film Thermoelectric Materials
175
II LowTemperature Heteroepitaxy of Bi2Te3Sb2Te3 Superlattices
176
XI KL and MFP of UltraShortPeriod Superlattices
192
XII LocalizationLike Behavior in SiGe Superlattices
193
XIII CrossPlane Carrier Transport in Bi2Te3Sb2Te3 Superlattices
194
XIV Adiabatic Peltier Effect in Thin Film Thermoelements
196
XV Differential Cooling in Bulk and Superlattice Thermoelements
197
XVI Summary and Conclusions
198
References
200
Phonon Transport in LowDimensional Structures
203
II Phonons in Bulk and LowDimensional Materials
206
2 Phonon Dispersion in Nanostructures
210
III Thin Film Thermal Conductivity Measurement Techniques
214
2 Optical PumpandProbe Methods
219
3 OpticalElectrical Hybrid Methods
221
IV Analytical Tools
222
2 BOLTZMANN TRANSPORT EQUATION
224
3 Boundary Conditions for BTE
225
4 Monte Carlo Simulation
228
V Thermal Conductivity of Nanostructures
230
2 Thermal Conductivity of Superlattices
234
3 Thermal Conductivity of OneDimensional Structures
243
4 Heat Conduction in Nanoporous and Mesostructures
244
VI Phonon Engineering in Nanostructures
246
VII Concurrent ElectronPhonon Modeling
250
References
253
Index
261
Contents of Volumes in This Series
267
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About the author (2001)

Prof. Terry M. Tritt is considered a prominent researcher in the field of thermoelectric materials, in which he has worked over the last decade. Understanding the theoretical and experimental aspects of thermalconduction in new materials is key to developing the next generation thermoelectric materials. Prof. Tritt has edited seven books, authored several review articles and over 120 scientific publications in his career.

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