Allowable bending stresses of wood for use in portable wood ladders
Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 1975 - House & Home - 6 pages
The report describes a procedure that was used by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Subcommittee to establish working stresses for various species of wood used for ladder parts. Such parts are made from high quality, essentially clear wood for a product that requires a high level of safety. The procedures outlined here might suggest ways to arrive at working stresses for other structural members made from high quality wood.
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Agric ALLOWABLE BENDING STRESSES allowable fiber stress allowable stresses American National Standards American Society ANSI Al4.l standard applied average green modulus bending strength calculate a near-minimum clear wood Coast Douglas-fir content of l5 Density dependent on species dry/green ratio drying factor of safety Factors Independent Forest Products Laboratory grain of l:l2 hardwoods independent of species knots l:l2 or flatter l2 percent moisture l5 percent moisture ladder rails modulus of rupture National Standard Safety National Standards Institute near-minimum modulus near-minimum strength value percent exclusion limit percent moisture content Portable Wood Ladders ratio for modulus reduction revision rupture for clear slope of grain softwoods species groupings species of wood standard deviation Standard for Portable Standard Safety Code Standard Safety Standard straight-grain wood strength data stress for ladder stress in bending stresses for wood structural lumber subcommittee Testing and Materials U.S. Dep U.S. Department variables dependent wood for ladders Wood HandbookóWood wood structural members