The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State

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Cambridge University Press, 2000 - History - 211 pages
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In order to distinguish between those who may and may not enter or leave, states everywhere have developed extensive systems of identification, central to which is the passport. This innovative book argues that documents such as passports, internal passports and related mechanisms have been crucial in making distinctions between citizens and non-citizens. It examines how the concept of citizenship has been used to delineate rights and penalties regarding property, liberty, taxes and welfare. It focuses on the US and Western Europe, moving from revolutionary France to the Napoleonic era, the American Civil War, the British industrial revolution, pre-World War I Italy, the reign of Germany's Third Reich and beyond. This innovative study combines theory and empirical data in questioning how and why states have established the exclusive right to authorize and regulate the movement of people.
  

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The invention of the passport: surveillance, citizenship and the state

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No abstract sociological text, this work is notable for its absence of jargon and its solid grounding in historical fact. Torpey (sociology, Univ. of California, Irvine) analyzes how increasingly ... Read full review

Contents

Coming and Going On the State Monopolization of the Legitimate Means of Movement
4
Monopolizing the legitimate means of movement
6
penetrating or embracing?
10
institutionalizing the nationstate
14
The prevalence of passport controls in absolutist Europe
18
Argus of the Patrie The Passport Question in the French Revolution
21
The fight of the King and the Revolutionary renewal of passport control
25
The Constitution of 1791 and the elimination of passport controls
29
Passports and Chinese exclusion
96
The nationalization of immigration restriction in the United States
101
The Italian passport law of 1901
103
The spread of identification documents for foreigners in France
105
The resurrection of passport controls in late nineteenthcentury Germany
108
The First World War and the temporary reimposition of passport controls
111
Temporary passport controls become permanent
116
The United States and the end of the Laissez faire era in migration
117

The debate over passport Controls of early 1792
32
A detailed examination of the new passport law
36
Passports and freedom of movement under the Convention
44
Passport Concerns of the Directory
51
Sweeping Out Augeass Stable The NineteenthCentury Trend Toward Freedom of Movement
57
From the Emancipation of the peasantry to the end of the Napoleonic era
58
Prussian backwardness? A Comparative look at the situation in the United Kingdom
66
Freedom of Movement and citizenship in early nineteenthcentury
71
Toward the relaxation of passport controls in the German lands
75
The decriminalization of travel in the North German
81
Broader significance of the 1867 law
88
Toward the Crustacean Type of Nation The Proliferation of Identification Documents From the Late Nineteenth Century to the First World War
93
From National to Postnational? Passports and Constraints on Movement from the Interwar to the Postwar Era
122
The emergence of the international refugee regime in the early interwar period
124
Passports identity papers and the Nazi persecution of the Jews
131
Passport controls and regional intergration in postwar Europe
143
A Typology of Papers
158
International passports
159
Internal passport
164
Identity cards
165
Notes
168
References
191
Index
203
Copyright

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