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agent alkali alkaline pulping amount aspen bark bisulfite black liquor bleachability bleaching brightness calcium carbohydrates caustic cells Chem chips chlorine dioxide color commercial concentration consistency consumption contains cooking liquor deinking delignification density digester dilute dissolved effect evaporation extraction free sulfur dioxide freeness furnace gases grades green liquor grinder grinding groundwood hardwoods heat hemicelluloses higher hypochlorite increase kraft lignin lignin content lignosulfonic lime liquor ratio method mills molecule obtained oxide Paper Ind Paper Trade papermaking pentosans peroxide pine pressure produced Pulp Paper Mag pulping processes reaction recovery reduced refining removed resin screening semichemical pulps soda process sodium carbonate sodium hydroxide sodium sulfite softwoods soluble solution species spruce stage steam stone straw sulfite cooking sulfite process sulfite pulp sulfite spent liquor sulfonation sulfur dioxide sulfuric acid tall oil Tappi temperature tion titration tower tracheids unbleached viscosity washing waste weight wood pulps yield