Complex Materials in Physics and Biology

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Franco Mallamace, Harry Eugene Stanley
IOS Press, 2012 - Technology & Engineering - 420 pages
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The surprising connections which have developed between physics and various fields as diverse as biology and economics now constitute the fascinating research area known as complex materials and systems. The study of complex materials and processes is rapidly expanding, and many important experimental and theoretical discoveries have been made in recent years. Statistical physics is key to exploring this new and expanding field, enabling an understanding of real-world phenomena compromised of complex materials or exhibiting complex processes. This book includes lectures presented at the CLXXVI International School of Physics oEnrico Fermio, held in Varenna, Italy, in July 2010. The school focused on recent advances and developing perspectives in the study of complex materials and processes, as related to physics and biology. The book provides both an introduction and a complete presentation of recent theoretical and experimental developments for each topic.Topics addressed include: scaling and universality, supra-molecular systems and solutions, polymer systems, static and dynamics of liquid water, arrested dynamics and jamming, dynamics of out of equilibrium systems, physics of confined liquids, granular matter, physics of biological and medical systems, networks in physical and social sciences, turbulence in physics, biology and economics and finally, switching phenomena in biology and economics. The book provides reviews of these cutting edge topics by leading authorities and will be a reference work useful to both advanced research professionals and beginning graduate students.
  

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Contents

Models of the hydrophobic attraction
1
Dynamics of biopolymers and their hydration water studied by neutron scattering
11
Wetting transitions in fluid interfaces
43
Geometrical characterization of dynamical heterogeneities in chemical gels colloidal gels and colloidal glasses
55
Lectures on molecular and nanoscale fluctuations in water
75
Water and anomalous liquids
113
Experiments and MD simulations
129
The intricate structure of confined water
151
Longterm memory in climate records and the detection problem
283
A path to complexity
297
Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks
311
The kinetics of the foldingunfolding process of hydrated lysozyme studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
325
Light scattering enhancement in porphyrin nanocomposites
335
The case of cellulose in ancient paper a SANS study
341
Evidence of a finite screening length of the repulsive potential among copolymer micelles in a room temperature ionic liquid
347
Aggregation of porphyrinbased cyclic supramolecular architectures
361

Liquid water structure from Xray spectroscopy and simulations
165
Particles in fluids
187
Critical overview of AgentBased Models for Economics
235
POSTERS
371
Elenco dei partecipanti
411
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About the author (2012)

H. Eugene Stanley is a University Professor and Director of the Center for Polymer Studies, Boston University, Professor of Physics, Chemistry and Biomedical Engineering, and Professor of Physiology at Boston University School of Medicine. A pioneer in interdisciplinary science, he has won the Boltzmann Medal and numerous other awards for his contributions.