## The Dynamics of Heat, Volume 1Based on a course given to beginning physics, chemistry, and engineering students at the Winterthur Polytechnic Institute, this text approaches the fundamentals of thermodynamics from the view of continuum mechanics. By describing physical processes in terms of the flow and balance of physical quantities, this provides a unified approach to hydraulics, electricity, mechanics and thermodynamics. In this way it becomes clear that the entropy is the fundamental property that is transported in thermal process (what in lay terms would be called "heat"), and that the temperature is the corresponding potential. The resulting theory of the creation, flow, and balance of entropy provides the foundation of a dynamical theory of heat. Previous knowledge of thermodynamics is not required, but the reader should be familiar with basic electricity, mechanics, and chemistry and should have some knowledge of elementary calculus. |

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### Contents

A Unified View of Physical Processes | 1 |

P1 The Flow of Water and Charge | 2 |

P2 Transport Processes and Laws of Balance | 12 |

P3 The Properties of Bodies | 20 |

P4 Energy and Physical Processes | 28 |

P5 Continuum Physics System Dynamics and the Teaching of Physics | 38 |

Questions and Problems | 42 |

chapter 1 Hotness Heat and Energy | 51 |

The Transport of Heat | 301 |

31 Transport Processes and the Balance of Entropy | 302 |

32 Some Simple Applications of the Flow of Heat | 312 |

33 Heat Transfer and Entropy Production | 343 |

34 The Balance of Entropy and Energy in Conduction | 357 |

35 Radiative Transport of Heat | 378 |

36 Solar Radiation | 415 |

Questions and Problems | 439 |

12 Temperature and Thermometry | 66 |

13 Some Simple Cases of Heating | 73 |

14 Engines Thermal Power and the Exchange of Heat | 82 |

15 The Production of Heat | 101 |

16 The Balance of Entropy | 109 |

17 Dissipation and the Production of Entropy | 119 |

Questions and Problems | 144 |

The Response of Uniform Bodies to Heating | 153 |

Entropy Capacity | 157 |

23 The Heating of the Ideal Gas | 170 |

24 Adiabatic Processes and the Entropy Capacities of the Ideal Gas | 181 |

25 Some Applications of the Thermomechanics of the Ideal Gas | 197 |

26 Black Body Radiation as a Simple Fluid | 207 |

27 The Coupling of Magnetic and Thermal Processes | 215 |

28 The General Law of Balance of Energy | 220 |

Equilibrium and Changes of State | 229 |

Questions and Problems | 237 |

Heat Engines and the Caloric Theory of Heat | 243 |

I1 Thermal Equations of State | 244 |

I2 A Theory of Heat for Ideal Fluids | 250 |

Carnots Axiom | 267 |

I5 Caloric and Mechanical Theories of Heat | 289 |

Questions and Problems | 296 |

Heat and the Transformation and Transport of Substances | 447 |

41 The Concept of Amount of Substance | 448 |

42 Chemical Reactions and the Chemical Potential | 461 |

43 Phase Changes Solutions and Mixtures of Fluids | 484 |

44 Flow Processes and the Chemical Potential | 507 |

45 Vapor Power and Refrigeration Cycles | 536 |

46 Applications of Convective Heat Transfer | 554 |

Questions and Problems | 583 |

Steps Toward Continuum Thermodynamics | 591 |

E1 Thermodynamics of Uniform Fluids | 592 |

E2 Equations of Balance for Continuous Processes | 611 |

E3 The Energy Principle | 624 |

E4 Thermodynamics of Viscous HeatConducting Fluids | 629 |

Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics | 648 |

E6 The Lessons of Continuum Thermodynamics | 654 |

Questions and Problems | 655 |

Tables Symbols Glossary and References | 657 |

A2 Symbols used in the text | 675 |

A3 Glossary | 687 |

691 | |

697 | |

### Common terms and phrases

absorbed absorption adiabatic adiabatic processes amount of entropy amount of substance assume balance of energy balance of entropy blackbody radiation body calculated caloric caloric theory Carnot cycle chemical potential collector compression conduction convective current density current of entropy derived dissipation electrical emission emitted energy current energy exchanged energy flux enthalpy entropy and energy entropy capacity entropy content entropy production equal equation of balance ergy example expression Figure fluid flux density flux of entropy function gradient heat engine heat exchanger heat pump heat transfer coefficient ideal gas irreversible isothermal latent heat law of balance liquid mass mechanical molar mole momentum physical pressure production of entropy rate of change rate of production reaction relation respect result Section simple solar radiation SOLUTION source rate substancelike quantity temperature coefficient thermal equation thermal processes thermodynamics tion transport tropy vapor viscosity zero