The Dynamics of Heat, Volume 1

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 1, 1996 - Science - 713 pages
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Based on a course given to beginning physics, chemistry, and engineering students at the Winterthur Polytechnic Institute, this text approaches the fundamentals of thermodynamics from the view of continuum mechanics. By describing physical processes in terms of the flow and balance of physical quantities, this provides a unified approach to hydraulics, electricity, mechanics and thermodynamics. In this way it becomes clear that the entropy is the fundamental property that is transported in thermal process (what in lay terms would be called "heat"), and that the temperature is the corresponding potential. The resulting theory of the creation, flow, and balance of entropy provides the foundation of a dynamical theory of heat. Previous knowledge of thermodynamics is not required, but the reader should be familiar with basic electricity, mechanics, and chemistry and should have some knowledge of elementary calculus.
  

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Contents

A Unified View of Physical Processes
1
P1 The Flow of Water and Charge
2
P2 Transport Processes and Laws of Balance
12
P3 The Properties of Bodies
20
P4 Energy and Physical Processes
28
P5 Continuum Physics System Dynamics and the Teaching of Physics
38
Questions and Problems
42
chapter 1 Hotness Heat and Energy
51
The Transport of Heat
301
31 Transport Processes and the Balance of Entropy
302
32 Some Simple Applications of the Flow of Heat
312
33 Heat Transfer and Entropy Production
343
34 The Balance of Entropy and Energy in Conduction
357
35 Radiative Transport of Heat
378
36 Solar Radiation
415
Questions and Problems
439

12 Temperature and Thermometry
66
13 Some Simple Cases of Heating
73
14 Engines Thermal Power and the Exchange of Heat
82
15 The Production of Heat
101
16 The Balance of Entropy
109
17 Dissipation and the Production of Entropy
119
Questions and Problems
144
The Response of Uniform Bodies to Heating
153
Entropy Capacity
157
23 The Heating of the Ideal Gas
170
24 Adiabatic Processes and the Entropy Capacities of the Ideal Gas
181
25 Some Applications of the Thermomechanics of the Ideal Gas
197
26 Black Body Radiation as a Simple Fluid
207
27 The Coupling of Magnetic and Thermal Processes
215
28 The General Law of Balance of Energy
220
Equilibrium and Changes of State
229
Questions and Problems
237
Heat Engines and the Caloric Theory of Heat
243
I1 Thermal Equations of State
244
I2 A Theory of Heat for Ideal Fluids
250
Carnots Axiom
267
I5 Caloric and Mechanical Theories of Heat
289
Questions and Problems
296
Heat and the Transformation and Transport of Substances
447
41 The Concept of Amount of Substance
448
42 Chemical Reactions and the Chemical Potential
461
43 Phase Changes Solutions and Mixtures of Fluids
484
44 Flow Processes and the Chemical Potential
507
45 Vapor Power and Refrigeration Cycles
536
46 Applications of Convective Heat Transfer
554
Questions and Problems
583
Steps Toward Continuum Thermodynamics
591
E1 Thermodynamics of Uniform Fluids
592
E2 Equations of Balance for Continuous Processes
611
E3 The Energy Principle
624
E4 Thermodynamics of Viscous HeatConducting Fluids
629
Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics
648
E6 The Lessons of Continuum Thermodynamics
654
Questions and Problems
655
Tables Symbols Glossary and References
657
A2 Symbols used in the text
675
A3 Glossary
687
A4 References
691
Subject Index
697
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