Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments from Authority (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Penn State Press, Nov 1, 2010 - Language Arts & Disciplines
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Contents

2 The Case of Lorenzos Oil
134
3 Reported Controversies
137
4 Appeal to Expert Opinion in Political Debate
140
5 The Context of Dialogue
144
6 Style of Presentation
149
7 The Secondary Level of Dialogue
153
8 Critical Questions and Logical Form
157
9 Drawing Inferences from Expert Opinion
159

8 Questioning an Expert Opinion
23
9 The Problem of Fallacies
28
10 Finding a Middle Way
29
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
32
1 Overview of Developments
33
2 Plato on Socratic Questioning of Experts
35
3 Aristotle on Dialectical Arguments
38
4 The Medieval View of Argument from Authority
43
5 Galileos Challenge to Proof by Authority
46
6 The PortRoyal Logic
48
7 Lockes Account of Argumentum ad Verecundiam
52
8 Bentham on Appeal to Authority
55
9 The Meaning of Verecundia
57
10 Where to Begin
60
IDENTIFICATION OF THE TYPE OF ARGUMENT
63
1 Appeal to Reverence
64
2 Knowledge Versus Appeal to Authority
67
3 Testimony of Authoritative Sources
69
4 Varying Definitions of Ad Verecundiam
72
5 The Ambiguity of Authority
76
6 Advertising Testimonials
79
7 Position to Know
82
8 Authority and Expertise
84
9 Terminological Choice
86
10 Provisional Conclusions
88
FORM OF THE ARGUMENT
91
1 Deductive Forms
92
2 Probable Inferences from a Knowledge Base
96
3 Inductive Forms
98
4 Presumptive Forms
100
5 Expert Systems
104
6 Informal Logic and Expert Systems
107
7 The Concept of an Expert
110
8 Reliability and BiasSubjective Factors
114
9 Human and Machine Expertise
117
10 Evaluating the Form in a Context of Dialogue
120
DIALECTICAL ASPECTS
126
1 The Case of the Deadly Radar Gun
127
10 Dialectical Structure of Appeal to Expert Opinion
164
EXPERT TESTIMONY AS LEGAL EVIDENCE
167
1 The Adversarial Setting of a Trial
168
2 The Battle of the Experts
171
3 Junk Science in the Courts
176
4 The GoItAlone Expert
179
5 Legal Criteria for Scientific Testimony
181
6 Hearsay Evidence in Expert Testimony
185
7 Science As a Body of Knowledge
188
8 Solutions to the Junk Science Problem
192
9 The Framework of Dialogue in a Trial
194
10 The Consistency Critical Question
197
CRITICAL QUESTIONS
199
1 Premises and Critical Questions
200
2 Early Accounts
202
3 Accounts in the 1970s
205
4 Recent Accounts
208
5 Personal Reliability and Bias
213
6 The Trustworthiness Question
215
7 Position to Know
217
8 General Acceptance in a Field
218
9 General Recommendations
222
10 Using Critical Questions for Evaluation
225
EXPLAINING THE FALLACY
230
1 Suspect and Fallacious Appeals
231
2 Specific Defaults Cited
234
3 Dogmatic Appeals to Authority
239
4 The Halo Effect and Milgrams Experiments
243
5 Institutional Setting of Authority
245
6 Fallible Arguments Absolutized
247
7 Confusing Two Types of Authority
250
8 Profiles of Dialogue
253
9 Subfallacies
255
10 Summary
257
BIBLIOGRAPHY
263
INDEX
273
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