Medial mandibular ramus: ontogenetic, idiosyncratic, and geographic variation in recent Homo, great apes, and fossil hominids
John and Erica Hedges Ltd., 2003 - Medical - 113 pages
This specialised and technical contribution to the debate surrounding the anatomical evolution of modern man and variations between Neanderthals and modern humans is based on the analysis of one specific jaw bone, the medial mandibular ramus, and its soft tissue attachments. Sections examine the range of samples available, the results of analysis and comparison, the morphological differences and evolutionary changes observed, the role of tendons and ligaments, and muscle function. Illustrated throughout with examples.
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MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONS AND DESCRIPTION OF MEDIAL RAMAL BONY
Description of bony medial ramus anatomy and related soft tissues in ontogenetic samples
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afarensis AmHs Amud Anat anatomy Anthrop apes ArHs assessment attachment sites Australopithecus autapomorphic bone bony attachment colli border concave craniofacial Creed-Miles differences Ehringsdorf Eijden endocondyloidea entheses extension fibrocartilage fossil function Further growth hominids Homo human individuals infants inferior border inferiorly insertion sites intermedia KNM-BK Krapina latter ligament lingular bridging lingular notch mandible mandibulae mandibular ramus masticatory muscles Meckel's cartilage medial ramus medially projecting Montmaurin morphology MPT character muscle fibers mylohyoid groove Neanderthals neurovascular bundle observed occurs ontogenetic ontogeny orientation pattern periosteum phylogenetic Pongo posterior component posterior ramal border present pterygoid tubercle pterygoideus medialis attachment pterygoideus medialis insertion recent H region relationship relative Roc de Marsal sample sapiens septa septal attachments septum 21 similar soft tissue specimens sphenomandibulare s.l. structures subadult sulcal component sulcus superior aspect superoinferiorly Tabun taxa taxonomic tendon Tillier Trinkaus troglodytes tubercle Type variation Vindija whereas Zafarraya Zhoukoudian