Migration and Ethnicity in Chinese History: Hakkas, Pengmin, and Their Neighbors
This book analyzes the emergence of ethnic consciousness among Hakka-speaking people in late imperial China in the context of their migrations in search of economic opportunities. It poses three central questions: What determined the temporal and geographic pattern of Hakka and Pengmin (a largely Hakka-speaking people) migration in this era? In what circumstances and over what issues did ethnic conflict emerge? How did the Chinese state react to the phenomena of migration and ethnic conflict?
To answer these questions, a model is developed that brings together three ideas and types of data: the analytical concept of ethnicity; the history of internal migration in China; and the regional systems methodology of G. William Skinner, which has been both a breakthrough in the study of Chinese society and an approach of broad social-scientific application. Professor Skinner has also prepared eleven maps for the book, as well as the Introduction.
The book is in two parts. Part I describes the spread of the Hakka throughout the Lingnan, and to a lesser extent the Southeast Coast, macroregions. It argues that this migration occurred because of upswings in the macroregional economies in the sixteenth century and in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. As long as economic opportunities were expanding, ethnic antagonisms were held in check. When, however, the macroregional economies declined, in the mid-seventeenth and late eighteenth centuries, ethnic tensions came to the fore, notably in the Hakka-Punti War of the mid-nineteenth century.
Part II broadens the analysis to take into account other Hakka-speaking people, notably the Pengmin, or “shack people.” When new economic opportunities opened up, the Pengmin moved to the peripheries of most of the macroregions along the Yangzi valley, particularly to the highland areas close to major trading centers. As with the Hakka, ethnic antagonisms, albeit differently expressed, emerged as a result of a declining economy and increased competition for limited resources in the main areas of Pengmin concentration.
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Introduction by G William Skinner I
The Origins and Historiography of the Hakkas
Hakka Migrations in Lingnan and the Southeast Coast
The Formation of the Hakka Ethos in the Nineteenth Century
Ethnicity and Nationalism in the Twentieth Century
The Pengmin and Government Policies Toward Migration
Pengmin Migration to the Gan Yangzi Region
Ethnic Conflict in the Gan Yangzi
administrative Anhui baojia Cantonese Chaozhou Chapter Chen Jitang China Chinese conflict crops daolun dialect Dongguan early Qing economic eighteenth century ethnic group Fujian Gan basin Gan Yangzi Gazetteer Guang Guangdong Guangzhou Hakka areas Hakka cultural Hakka dialect Hakka ethnic Hakka heartland Hakka homeland Hakka migration Hakka settlement Hakka speech Han Chinese Hanjiang Hanshui highlands Hoklos Hong Huang Hubei Huizhou Huizhou FZ Ibid indigo interethnic Jiangxi Jiaying zhou JX GY keji Kejia land late Ming Leong lineages Lower Yangzi lowland Luo Xianglin macroregions maize mid-Qing Middle Yangzi Ming-Qing mobilization mountain native nineteenth century numbers official origins Pengmin Pengmin in-migration Pengmin migration periphery Pingxiang population prefecture province Punti quota ramie rebellion regional cycles River Ruijin Ruyi Sichuan Southeast Coast southern Gan subregion Taiping Taiwan Ting basin tion Wanzai xian zhi Xiang Xiang-Gan border Xinchang Yangzi region Yichun Yong'an Yongzheng Yuanzhou Zhang Zhangzhou Zhejiang Zhongguo