Applied mechanics: an elementary general introduction to the theory of structures and machines. With diagrams, illustrations, and examples (Google eBook)

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Macmillan and co., 1895 - Compressed air - 630 pages
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Contents

Warren Girders under various Loads
44
Lattice Girders Flanged Beams
51
Application to the Case of a Loaded Beam
60
Travelling Loads
66
Method of Sections in General Ritters Method
72
Hinged Arches
79
Framework with Redundant Parts
85
Introductory Remarks
91
Mechanism of a DirectActing Engine Position of Piston
97
Combination of a Sliding and a Turning Pair
118
CONNECTION OF TWO LOWER PAIRS
126
Shifting of Belts Fusee Chain
133
Augmentation of a Chain Trains of Wheels
139
Involute Teeth
144
Addendum and Clearance of Teeth
150
Ratchets
156
MECHANISM IN GENERAL ARTICLE PAGE 70 Plane Motion in General Centrodes
160
Axoids Elementary Examples of Centrodes
162
Profiles for given Centrodes
164
Centrodes for a Higher Pair connecting Lower Pairs
166
Construction of Centres of Curvature of Profiles Williss Method
167
Sphere Motion
169
Classification of Simple Kinematic Chains
170
Compound Kinematic Chains
171
DYNAMICS OF MACHINES
177
PRINCIPLE OF WORK SECTION I BALANCED FORCES STATICS 88 Preliminary Explanations Definition of Work
179
Oblique Resistance
180
Variable Resistance
182
Resistance to Rotation Stability of a Vessel
183
Internal and External Work 18
185
Energy Principle of Work
186
Machines
188
Verification of the Principle of Work in Special Examples
190
Periodic Motion of Machines
192
Power Sources of Energy
193
Reversibility Conservation and Storage of Energy
194
Examples
195
UNBALANCED FORCES KINETICS 99 Kinetic Energy of Translation Sliding Pair
196
Partially Unbalanced Forces Principle of Work
198
Kinetic Energy of Rotation Turning Pair
199
Kinetic Energy of the Moving Parts of a Machine
202
Conservation of Energy
203
Examples and References
207
DYNAMICS OF THE STEAM ENGINE 104 Construction of Polar Curves of Crank Effort
210
Construction of Linear Curves of Crank Effort
212
Ratio of Maximum and Minimum Crank Effort to Mean
213
Fluctuation of Energy
214
Fluctuation of Speed Fly Wheels
219
Correction of Indicator Diagram for Inertia of Reciprocating Parts
223
Construction of Curves of Crank Effort for any given Indicator Diagram
229
Pumping Engines
231
A Periodic Motion of Machines in General
233
Examples
234
FRICTIONAL RESISTANCES 112 Preliminary Remarks
236
Rolling Friction
249
Friction of Toothed Wheels and Cams
255
CHAPTER XLMACHINES IN GENERAL
262
REGULATORS AND METERS
270
Parabolic Governors
274
STRAINING ACTIONS ON THE PARTS OF A MACHINE
279
STIFFNESS AND STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
289
ARTICLE TAOE 147 Introductory Remarks
291
SIMPLE TENSION COMPRESSION AND BENDING OF PERFECTLY ELASTIC MATERIALS SECTION I TENSION AND COMPRESSION 148 ...
294
14 Work done in Stretching a Rod
296
Thin Pipes and Spheres under Internal Fluid Pressure
297
Remarks on Tension
299
Simple Compression
300
Proof that the Stress at each Point varies as its Distance from the Neutral Axis
301
Determination of the Position of the Neutral Axis
304
Remarks on the Theory of Bending
306
Calculation of Moments of Inertia
307
Beams of I Section with Equal Flanges
308
15 Ratio of Depth to Span in I Beams
309
ltil Beams of Uniform Strength
312
Unsymmetrical Bending
313
Examples
314
DEFLECTION AND SLOPE OF BEAMS 163 Deflection due to the Maximum Bending Moment
317
General Equation of Deflection Curve
318
Elementary Cases of Deflection and Slopo
319
Beam propped in the Middle
320
Beam fixed at the Ends
321
Stiffness of a Beam
323
General Graphical Method
324
Examples of Graphical Method
325
Elastic Energy of u Bent Beam
327
Concluding Remarks 32M Examples
328
TENSION OR COMPRESSION COMPOUNDED WITH BENDING CRUSHING BY BENDING 173 General Formula for the Stress due to a Thrust o...
330
Remarks on the Application of the General Formula
332
Forced Vibrations
384
STRESS STRAIN AND ELASTICITY
392
STRAIN
399
CONNECTION BETWEEN STRESS AND STRAIN ARTICLE PAGE 210 Equations connecting Stress and Strain in Isotropic Matter
401
Elasticity of Form and Volume
403
Modulus of Elasticity under Various Circumstances Elasticity of Flexion
404
Remarks on Shearing and Bending
406
Thick Hollow Cylinder under Internal Pressure
408
Strengthening of Cylinder by Rings Effect of great Pressures
412
Elastic Energy of a Solid
413
Examples
414
MATERIALS STRAINED BEYOND THE ELASTIC LIMIT STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 217 Plastic Materials
416
Flow of Solids
418
Breaking down Point
421
Real and Apparent Strength of Ductile Metals
423
Increase of Hardness by Stress beyond the Elastic Limit
424
Compression of Ductile Materials
425
Bending beyond the Elastic Limit
427
Stretching of Cast Iron
429
Crushing of Rigid Materials
430
Breaking of Cast Iron Beams
431
Shearing and Torsion
432
Connection between Co efficients of Strength
434
Wohlers experiments on Fluctuating Stress
437
Influence of Repetition on Elastic Limit
440
Impact
441
Factors of Safety and Coefficients of Working Strength
442
Values of Co efficients
444
Fibrous Materials Ropes
445
236
446
Principle of Similitude
450
Examples
452
Description of Plate VIII
454
TRANSMISSION AND CONVERSION OF ENERGY BY FLUIDS
456
Introductory Remarks
457
ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS SECTION I INTRODUCTORY 240 Velocity due to a given Head
459
Hydraulic Resistances in General
462
Sternly Flow through Pipes Conservation of Energy
465
MOTION OF AN UNDISTURBED STREAM 244 Distribution of Energy in an Undisturbed Stream Vortex Motion
467
Viscosity
469
Discharge from Large Orifices in a Vertical Plane
470
Similar Motions
472
ARTICLE PAOE 248 Surface Friction in General 473
473
Discharge of Pipes
477
25L Open Channels
478
Virtual Slope of a Pipe
479
Bends in a Pipe Surface Friction
484
Summation of Losses of Head
486
PRINCIPLE OF MOMENTUM 256 Direct Impulse and Reaction
487
Oblique Action Curved Surfaces
488
Impulse and Reaction of Water in a Closed Passage
490
RESISTANCE OF DEEPLYIMMERSED BODIES 259 Eddy Resistance
491
Oblique Moving Plate
495
Pressure of a Current against an Obstacle
497
Examples First Series
498
Second Series
499
Preliminary Remarks
501
Hydraulic Pressure Machines in Steady Motion
503
Hydraulic Pressure Machines in Unsteady Motion
505
Examples of Hydraulic Pressure Machines
507
Hydraulic Brakes
508
Transmission of Energy by Hydraulic Pressure
511
Pumps
512
Description of Plates IX and X
515
Examples
516
IMPULSE AND REACTION MACHINES 27C Impulse and Reaction Machines in General
517
Angular Impulse and Momentum
520
Reaction Wheels
521
Turbine Motors
523
Turbine Pumps
527
Approximate Investigation of the Efficiency of a Centrifugal Iump
530
Limitation of Diameter of Wheel
532
Impulse Wheels
534
Equation of Steady Flow in a Rotating Casing
535
Similar Hydraulic Machines
537
ELASTIC FLUIDS 280 Preliminary Remarks
539
Transmitted Energy
541
Available Energy
542
Cycle o Operations in a Pneumatic Motor Mechanical Efficiency
543
ARTICLE Pti
546
Cycle of Thermal Operations in a Heat Engine
550
Compound Engines
557
Transmission of Energy by Compressed Air
564
Flow of Gases through Pipes
571
APPENDIX
585
Stiffness and Strength of Materials
595
Elastic Fluids
614

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 69 - I that is, the magnitude is proportional to the square of the distance of the point from the end A.
Page 165 - C be circles, this construction becomes that already considered when discussing the form of teeth for a wheel. This and the preceding method show clearly that the condition which the two profiles must always satisfy is that the common normal at the point of contact must always pass through the pitch point as already proved otherwise for the special case of wheel teeth. Not every pair of curves which satisfy the geometrical conditions could actually be used as profiles, either for centroids, or, in...
Page 312 - Ex. 11, p. 372.) 161. Beams of Uniform Strength. A beam of uniform strength is one in which the maximum stress is the same on all sections. For beams of the same transverse section throughout this can only be the case when the bending moment is uniform, but, by properly varying the section, it is possible to satisfy the condition however the bending moment vary. For this purpose we have only to consider the equation which must now be satisfied at all sections.
Page 585 - Intensity. The word STRESS has been adopted as a general term to comprehend various forces which are exerted between contiguous bodies, or parts of bodies, and which are distributed over the surface of contact of the masses between which they act.
Page 315 - Suppose the skin and plate deck of an iron vessel to have the following dimensions at the midship section, measured at the middle of the thickness of the plates. Find the position of the neutral axis and moment of resistance to bending. Breadth 48' and total depth 24', the bilges being quadrants of 12
Page 307 - The moment of inertia of an area about any axis is, therefore, determined by adding to the moment of inertia of the area about a parallel axis through the centre of gravity the product of the area into the square of the distance between the two axes. This theorem, together with previously quoted values of...
Page xx - What are the conditions of a science? and when may any subject be said to enter the scientific stage ? I suppose when the facts of it begin to resolve themselves into groups ; when phenomena are no longer isolated experiences, but appear in connection and order ; when, after certain antecedents, certain consequences are uniformly seen to follow ; when facts enough have been collected to furnish a basis for conjectural explanation, and when conjectures have so far ceased to be utterly vague, that...
Page 280 - ... carefully considered in the design. Suppose a crank which is rotating uniformly to be connected by a rod with a reciprocating piece such as a piston, but in the first instance let there be no steam admitted to the cylinder. When the piston is at the end of its stroke it is at rest, and has to be set in motion ; it consequently drags on the crank with a force which we have already investigated in Art. 109, p.
Page 591 - Force is an action between two bodies, either causing or tending to cause change in their relative rest or motion.
Page 87 - ... deep without a diagonal brace. The beam is loaded with 5 tons placed immediately over one of the vertical struts. Find the shearing force and bending moment at any point of the beam, supposing it jointed at the centre and the centre only. The thrust on each strut must be 2J tons ; therefore, curves of shearing force and bending moment for each half of the beam are the same as those for a beam 12 feet long loaded at a point 4 feet from one end with 2J tons. The problem should also be treated by...

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