A Manual of Civil Engineering (Google eBook)

Front Cover
C. Griffin, 1873 - 784 pages
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Contents

Art Pago 12 Order of Operations in the De tailed Survey
11
Information on Plan
13
Information on Section
14
Bench Marks
15
Arrangement of the ensuing Chapters
16
Marks and Signals Stakes KangingPolesWhites c
17
Structure and Use of the Chain and Arrows
18
Chaining on a Declivity
20
Onsets CrossStaff Optical Square OffsetStaffTape line
21
Oblique Onsets Surveying Buildings
23
Gaps in Stationlines
25
FieldBook 80
30
Sheets
31
Plotting DistancesOffsets
32
DetailsBook of Reference
33
Structure of the Theodolite
34
Adjustments of the Theodolite
35
Measuring Horizontal Angles
36
the Theodolite
53
CONTESTS xi
57
Use of the SextantReduction
67
C2 Ranging Straight LinesTransit
69
of Angles to a Horizontal Plane 63 58 61 38 CG 89 Use of the Compass in Surveying 40 Great Trigonometrical Survey 41 Great Traversing Survey ...
73
Plotting and Protracting
74
Traversing on a Small Scale
75
Plotting by Rectangular Coordi nates or Northings Southings Eastings and Westings
76
The PlaneTable C7 GS 70 71 74 7a 7G
77
Of Levelling 47 Settingout a Line of Section
80
The Levelling Staff
82
Adjustments of the Level
83
6L Use of the Level
85
Corrections for Curvature and Refraction
87
Level FieldBodk
89
Plotting a Section
90
Levelling by the PlaneTable
91
Detached LevelsFeatures of the Country
93
ContourLinesHillshading
97
WaterLevel
98
Instruments
99
C4 Nickingout
110
CONTENTS
112
Limitation of the SubjectLand
117
Of Copying Enlarging and Reducing Plans
125
OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES
131
Balance and Stability
173
Polygonal Frame
179
Balance of a Chain or Cord
185
Chain under Uniform Vertical
193
Centre of Gravity of a Flexible
199
Distorted Elliptic Rib
207
Linear Arched Bibs of
213
Stability of Blocks
219
Art Page
241
Continuous Girders
287
Stability of Earth
297
General PrinciplesAdhesion
303
Heaviness
315
Mensuration of Earth
324
Borings and Trial Shafts
333
Chapter IIL
349
Strength of Stones
360
Bricks
366
Of Ordinary Foundations
377
Construction of Stone Masonrycontinued
382
Art PKc 24 L Masonry Classed
383
Ashlar Masonry
384
BlockinConrse Masonry
386
CommoD Babble Masonry
387
String Courses and Copes
388
Pointing 889
389
Mechanism for moving large Stones
390
Instruments used in Building
391
Mensuration of Masonry
392
Section TLConstruction of Brickwork 254 General Principles
393
Bond in Brickwork 894
394
Hoop Iron Bond 895
395
Mensuration of Brickwork
396
Stability of a Verticalfaced Buttress with Horizontal Beds
399
Stability of Retaining or Revto ment Walls in General
401
Stability of Upright Rectangular Retaining Walls
404
Stability of Batteringfaced Re taining Walls
405
Stability of Battering Wills of Uniform Thickness
406
Counterforts
407
Surcharged Retaining Wall
408
Construction of Retaining Walls
409
LandTies for Retaining Walls
410
Use of the Hydrostatic Arch Semielliptic Arches
419
Use of the Geostatic Arch
420
Stability of any Proposed Arch
421
Circular Arch not less than a Quadrant
422
Stability of Unloaded Part of ArchRing
424
CircularArchlessthanQuadrant
425
AbutmentsRadiating Courses
428
Ribbed Arches Abutments and Piers
429
Ribbed Skew Arches
432
A Underground Arches Tunnels Culverts
433
Table for Calculating Coordi nates of Catenarian Curves
435
a List of Authorities on Masonry
436
Of Carpentry Section LOf Timber 299 Structure of Timber
437
SO0 TimberTrees Classed Pine wood Leafwood 489
439
Appearance of Good Timber
441
Examples of PinewoodPine Fir Larch Cowrie Cedar c
442
90S Examples of LeafwoodOak Beech Alder Plane Sycamore
443
Leafwood continuedChesnut Ash Elm
444
Leafwood continued Maho gany Teak Greenheart Mora c 445 306 Leafwood continued Iron bark BineGum Jarrah c
446
Age and Season for Felling TimberSquaring
447
Durability and Decay of Timber
449
Art Pase
450
General Principles 382
453
880
463
Sill
491
Of Metallic Structures
494
Castings for Works of Engineering
502
Strength of Wrought Iron
509
Of Iron Fastenings
515
Cast Iron Struts and Pillars 620
521
Effect of Wind on Tubular
537
Of Various Metals and Alloys
584
Art Page 4 Lead 684
585
TinAllot of Tin 685
586
Brass 1aira 585 688 389 A Aluminium Bronze
587
Ok Various Uhdergkousd ahd Submerged Structures Section I Of Tunnels 390 Tunnels in General
588
Shafts or Pits 689
589
Drifts Mines or Headings
594
Tunnels in Dry and Solid Bock 695
595
Tunnels in Drr Fissured Bock
596
TunnelFronts and Permanent Drainage
599
General Principles
601
Short Piles
602
Bearing Piles
603
Screw Piles
605
Timber and Ironcased Concrete Foundations
606
Iron Tubular Foundations
610
Caissons
611
Excavating under Water Dredg ing and Blasting
614
Diviui Apparatus
616
Embanking and Building under Water
617
OF COMBINED STRUCTURES Chatter I Of Lises of LakdCarriaqe Of Lines of LandCarriage in General 413 General Nature of WorksFor mation an...
619
Selection of Line and Levels
620
Baling Gradient
622
Resistance of Vehicles and Rul ing Gradients
623
Laying Out snd Formation of Roads in General
624
Breadth and Crosssection
625
Drainage and Fencing
626
Broken Stone Roads
627
Stone Pavements
628
4Z2 Footways of Roads
630
Plank Eoads
631
Wooden Pavements
632
Proportion of Gross to Net Load
635
Baling Gradients
641
A Action of Brakes
644
Gradients with Auxiliary Power
645
Laying Out and Formation of Railways in General
656
Crossings and Alterations of other Lines of Conveyance
658
Ballast
663
Sleepers
664
Rails and Chairs
665
Rails for Level Crossings of Roads
669
Stations
671
Of the Collection Conveyance and Distribution or Water
672
Contraction of Stream from Ori
679
Discharge and Dimensions
686
Of the Measurement
692
Ordinary Flow and Floods
698
Appendages of Store Reservoirs
704
478
723
Sewers
729
Wells 786
736
Of Works of Inland Navigation
742
525
765
627
778

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 349 - Geological Classification. The geological position of rocks has but little connection with their properties as building materials. As a general rule, the more ancient rocks are the stronger and the more durable ; but to this there are many exceptions. According to the usual geological classification, rocks are divided into igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary.
Page 384 - Rankine'e rule for the proportion of stones : " In order that the stones may not be liable to be broken across, no stone of a soft material, such as the weaker kinds of sandstone and granular limestone, should have a length greater than 3 times its depth. In harder materials the length may be 4 or 5 times the depth. The breadth in soft material may range from lj time to double the depth; in hard materials it may be 3 times the depth.
Page 507 - ... bubbling or agitation ; but a larger proportion is not to be used, as it would make the steel brittle. The presence of manganese in the iron, or its introduction into the crucible or vessel in which steel is made, improves the steel by increasing its toughness and making it easier to weld and forge. Steel is distinguished by the property of tempering; that is to say, it can be hardened by sudden cooling from a high temperature, and softened by gradual cooling; and its degree of hardness or softness...
Page 278 - The contingency of the sudden application of a moving load is provided for by the factor of safety, which expresses the ratio of the proof load to the working load (Article 247). The action of the rolling load to which a railway bridge is subjected is intermediate between that of an absolutely sudden load and a perfectly gradual load. It has been investigated mathematically by Mr. Stokes, and experimentally by Captain Galton, and the results are given in the Report of the Commissioners on the Application...
Page 317 - The properties of earth with respect to adhesion and friction are so variable that the engineer should never trust to tables or to information obtained from books to guide him in designing earthworks, when he has it in his power to obtain the necessary data either by observation of existing earthworks in the same stratum or by experiment.
Page 409 - The objects of this are, at once to distribute the pressure over a greater area than that of any bed-joint in the body of the wall, and to diffuse that pressure more equally, by bringing the centre of resistance nearer to the middle of the base than it is in the body of the wall. The power of earth to support foundations has already been considered in Article 199.
Page 358 - ... in which case the expansion of water in freezing between the layers makes them split or scale off from the face of the stone. When it is built on its " natural bed," any water which may penetrate between the edges of the layers has room readily to expand or escape. The better kinds of sandstone are the most generally useful of...
Page 171 - The most frequent cause of loss of work in machines is friction being that force which acts between two bodies at their surface of contact so as to resist their sliding on each other, and which depends on the force with which the bodies are pressed together.
Page 602 - It appears from practical examples that the limits of the safe load on piles are as follows : " For piles driven till they reach the firm ground, 1000 Ibs. per square inch of area of head.
Page 697 - ... carrying indexes that record the number of revolutions made in a given time. The whole apparatus is fixed at the end of a pole, so that it can be immersed to different depths in different parts of the channel. The relation between the number of revolutions of the fan per minute, and the corresponding velocity of the current...

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