Jews and Christians in twelfth-century Europe
The scope of this collection of original essays covers the years 1050 to 1215, but it really begins in the summer of 1096, when marauding crusaders attacked Jewish communities in three Rhineland cities. These violent episodes disrupted what had been a fairly peaceful history of coexistence between Jews and Christians for more than two centuries. Although the two groups inhabited fundamentally different religious universes, Jews and Christians lived in the same towns, on the same streets, and pursued their lives with minimal mutual interference and often with considerable cooperation. The events of 1096 destroyed that status quo. Relations between the two communities deteriorated, and the Jewish communities suffered as a result.The contributors' careful analyses of people, events, and texts provide a balanced perspective on the fate of twelfth-century Jewish communities. They reveal that there is considerable evidence that old routines and interactions between Christians and Jews persisted throughout this,period. From the perspective of the editors and contributors, this sense of complementarity, of interaction or action and reaction, needs to better inform the medieval story. The essays in this volume therefore intentionally highlight areas of common or parallel activity: in vernacular literature, in biblical exegesis, in piety and mysticism, in the social context of conversion, in relations with prelates and monarchs, in coping in a time of change, renewal, and upheaval. Most importantly, the editors and contributors insist on integrating both Jewish and Christian perspectives into the larger history of a very complex and increasingly urban twelfth-century Europe.
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Complex? Constructing the First Crusade
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Abraham Ambrose anti-Jewish ascetic Ashkenaz Babylonian Talmud baptism Bible biblical bishop Blumenkranz Chazan Christian chronicles Church clerics Cologne commentary context conversion Crusade culture death divine Eidelberg Eleazar Eleazar of Worms eschatological essay Europe European Jewry exegesis exegetical f1rst faith France Gavin Langmuir German glory God's Guibert Guibert of Nogent ha-Shem Habermann Hasidei Ashkenaz Hasidim Hebrew holy Ibid idem interpretation Israel Jacob Jerusalem Jesus Jewish community Jewish History Jews Jews and Christians Judah Judaism Juden Juifs king Latin literature liturgical Lord Mainz Anonymous Marcus martyrdom martyrs Medieval Jewish Middle Ages Midrash monks motif mystical narrative Paris passage persecutions Peter Peter the Venerable pietistic Psalm Rabbenu Rabbi Ralph Rashi religious Rhineland righteous Robert Chazan romance Rupert Rupert of Deutz Scripture Second Crusade Sefer Hasidim sexual Shekhinah soul sources specif1c story Super Leviticum tion tradition twelfth century verse Wolfson women York Yuval