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aloud and writing articulation of verse articulatory Attention on Writing Attention Undirected audiometer automatic automatic writing basilar membrane beats binaural blindfolded combination tones consciousness counting aloud curve difference tone difficulty directions distracting process errors evident experimental fork frequently Galton whistle grapho-motor control hand Helmholtz horizontal ideational illusion imagery intensity intervals introspective January 29 kinesthetic report Koenig Lapses letter by letter Lord Rayleigh ment method mirror-writing monaural motor motor imagery movement Normal Number counted Number of words observer occurred omission of letter omission of letter-part oscillation of attention perception position primary tones Psychol rapidity reagents records repetition of letter repetition of letter-part required for writing resonator Second trial sensations sound summation tones tendency theory time-readings tion training series tuning forks upper partials variation vertical vibrations visual anticipation visual control visual cue visual material visual perception visual report vocal-motor vocalization words read
Page 23 - When reading is done efficiently, the eye-movements are regular and the return sweep from the end of one line to the beginning of the next is made quickly and accurately.
Page 99 - The very slight amount of variation in the nature of the data necessary to affect the efficiency of a function-group makes it fair to infer that no change in the data, however slight, is without effect on the function. The loss in the efficiency of a function trained with certain data, as we pass to data more and more unlike the first, makes it fair to infer that there is always a point where the loss is complete, a point beyond which the influence of the training has not extended.
Page 99 - Improvement in any single mental function need not improve the ability in functions commonly called by the same name. It may injure it. Improvement in any single mental function rarely brings about equal improvement in any other function, no matter how similar, for the working of every mental function-group is conditioned by the nature of the data in each particular case.
Page 100 - The general consideration of the cases of retention or of loss of practice effect seems to make it likely that spread of practice occurs only where identical elements are concerned in the influencing and influenced function.
Page 5 - In other cases when he did hear the theoretical upper partials, they were weaker than the theory required. He concluded that the definition of a simple tone as given by Ohm was too limited, and that not only pendular vibrations, but other vibrational forms, provided they were not too widely separated from the pendular, were capable of exciting in the ear the sensation of a single simple tone, which, however, had a variable quality. He consequently asserted that when a musical tone was compounded...
Page 57 - The experiments given before and after training may be called the test series, and the other set, the training series. The test series is made up of several experiments, some of which are like the training series, while others differ. which the observer is not trained. This effect is measured by the difference in the results between the test series given before the training, and the test series given after the training. In order to measure the amount of training in the test series itself, two sets...
Page 101 - Imagery may be sub-consciously developed, but if it comes to be consciously recognized the improvement is more rapid. The rate of improvement seems to depend directly upon the conscious recognition of imagery and upon attention to its use." "A change in imagery during practice increases the rapidity of the improvement, if a better form is adopted and adhered to. It may prevent improvement if a change of imagery is frequent, or if a less adequate form is adopted.
Page 7 - We are accustomed [he says] in a large number of cases where sensations of different kinds, or in different parts of the body, exist simultaneously, to recognize that they are distinct as soon as they are perceived, and to direct our attention at will to any one of them separately. Thus at any moment we can be separately conscious of what we see, of what we hear, of what we feel; and distinguish what we feel in a finger or in the great toe, whether pressure, gentle touch, or warmth.
Page 76 - ... loud beats were heard in the ears just as they are ordinarily heard when powerful forks are sounded in the air. The forks were then held in this position until the beats had entirely ceased to be audible, when they were removed, and the stem of each was touched to the wax closing the two ears. Instantly the two notes were heard, faintly but distinctly, in the ears to which they were held, and accompanying them were faint beats seeming to wander in the head from ear to ear, as is always the case...
Page 6 - ... condition for a good musical quality of tone. Finally, these upper partials have been erroneously considered as weak, because they are difficult to observe, while, in point of fact, for some of the best musical qualities of tone, the loudness of the first upper partials is not far inferior to that of the prime tone itself. There is no difficulty in verifying this last fact by experiments on the tones of strings. Strike the string of a piano or monochord, and immediately touch one of its nodes...