Universities and the Global Knowledge Economy: A Triple Helix of University-industry-government Relations
Henry Etzkowitz, L. A. Leydesdorff
Pinter, 1997 - Education - 184 pages
University and industry, up to now relatively separate and distinct institutional spheres, are assuming tasks that were formerly largely the province of the other in the development of new technologies. A new social contract is being drawn up between the university and the larger society, in which public funding for the university is made contingent upon a more direct contribution to the economy. Has economic development become a function of the university in addition to teaching and research? As the university crosses traditional boundaries through linkages to industry, it must devise ways to make its multiple purposes compatible with each other. The impetuses include: the industrial activities of individual academics in forming firms, which take on a collective force as they become Increasingly common; the organisational inititiatives of academic administrators in establishing procedures and administrative offices for university-industry relations; and conflict of interest controversies over linkages with industry. A new spiral model of innovation is required to capture multiple reciprocal linkages at different stages of the capitalization of knowledge.
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Technological Programs in the European Union
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academia academic research Ahrweiler Andrew Webster Artificial Intelligence Australia basic research become biotechnology centers chapter co-evolution cognitive collaboration commercial companies competencies complex cooperation corporatism created digital media applications DMDL dynamics economic development emerging enterprises entrepreneurial established Etzkowitz European Union evolutionary evolutionary economics example factor firms focus formal funding German global important industry innovation instrument integration intellectual property rights interactions involved Japan Japanese Kansai Science City knowledge production knowledge-seeking activities laboratories Leydesdorff mechanisms ment metonymies networks Nordic Nordic countries organizational organizations orientation participation patenting percent perspective political potential problems productive sector projects PSRB regional relevant research institutes role science and technology scientific community scientists selection SMEs social sociology of science SPE community specific strategy structures technical techno technology transfer tion traditional transformation translation systems triple helix model university research university-industry relations Uruguay