The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies

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SAGE, Sep 9, 1994 - Business & Economics - 179 pages
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In this provocative and broad-ranging work, the authors argue that the ways in which knowledge - scientific, social and cultural - is produced are undergoing fundamental changes at the end of the twentieth century. They claim that these changes mark a distinct shift into a new mode of knowledge production which is replacing or reforming established institutions, disciplines, practices and policies.

Identifying features of the new mode of knowledge production - reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, heterogeneity - the authors show how these features connect with the changing role of knowledge in social relations. While the knowledge produced by research and development in science and technology is accorded central concern, the

  

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Contents

Evolution of Knowledge Production Summary
17
On the Phenomenology of the New Mode of Knowledge Production
27
The Dynamics of Mode 2 Knowledge Production
34
References
45
The Marketability and Commercialisation of Knowledge
46
Scale and Scope in Knowledge Production
51
Dynamic Competition and Knowledge Production
55
The Commercialisation of Research
59
Competitiveness Collaboration and Globalisation Summary
111
Networks Firms RD Alliances and Enterprise Webs
118
The Information Technology Paradigm
125
Some Paradoxical Consequences of Globalisation
128
References
136
Reconfiguring Institutions Summary
137
The Strain of Multifu nationality
141
Levels and Forms of Pluralisation
145

The New Economics of Production
61
Configurations of Knowledge
63
New Dimensions of Quality Control
65
Scale Scope and the New Mode of Knowledge Production
68
Massification of Research and Education Summary
70
Patterns of Massification in Higher Education
76
Colleglality Managerialism and the Fragmentation of Knowledge
81
Transition to the Knowledge Industries
84
The Changing Nature of Technology Transfer
86
The Case of the Humanities Summary
90
Similarities and Differences
93
Contextualisation and Meaning in the Humanities
105
References
110
The New Institutional Landscape of Knowledge Production
147
Reference
154
Towards Managing Socially Distributed Knowledge Summary
155
Three Phases or Science and Technology Policy
157
Rethinking Basic Assumptions
160
The Management of Distributed Knowledge Production
161
Future Issues
165
References
166
Glossary
167
Further Reading
169
Index
171
Copyright

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Page 4 - Mode 2, by contrast, knowledge results from a broader range of considerations. Such knowledge is intended to be useful to someone whether in industry or government, or society more generally and this imperative is present from the beginning. Knowledge is always produced under an aspect of continuous negotiation and it will not be produced unless and until the interests of the various actors are included.
Page 3 - The Age of Social Transformation', Atlantic Monthly, 1994, vol. 274, no. 5, November, pp. 53-80. 90 Michael Gibbons and colleagues distinguish knowledges as follows : 'in Mode 1 problems are set and solved in a context governed by the, largely academic, interests of a specific community.
Page 2 - culturally concentrated knowledge' (the outcome of Mode 1) and 'socially distributed knowledge' (the outcome of Mode 2). Mode 1 is defined as: a form of knowledge production - a complex of ideas, methods, values, norms that has grown up to control the diffusion of the Newtonian model to more and more fields of enquiry and to ensure its compliance with what is considered sound scientific practice. (Gibbons et al. 1994:2) Mode 1 is what the academy would conventionally consider 'scientific...
Page vii - The new mode operates within a context of application in that prohlems are not set within a disciplinary framework. It is transdisciplinary rather than mono- or multi-disciplinary. It is carried out in non-hierarchical, heterogeneously organised forms which are essentially transient. It is not heing instimtionalised primarily within university strucmres.
Page 5 - First, it develops a distinct but evolving framework to guide problem solving efforts. This is generated and sustained in the context of application and not developed first and then applied to that context later by a different group of practitioners. The solution does not arise solely, or even mainly, from the application of knowledge that already exists. Although elements of existing knowledge must have entered into it, genuine creativity is involved and the theoretical consensus, once attained...
Page 5 - Second, because the solution comprises both empirical and theoretical components it is undeniably a contribution to knowledge, though not necessarily disciplinary knowledge. Though it has emerged from a particular context of application, transdisciplinary knowledge develops its own distinct theoretical structures, research methods, and modes of practice, though they may not be located on the prevalent disciplinary map. The effort is cumulative, though the direction of accumulation may travel in a...
Page vii - It is not being institutionalised primarily within university structures. Mode 2 involves the close interaction of many actors throughout the process of knowledge production and this means that knowledge production is becoming more socially accountable. One consequence of these changes is that Mode 2 makes use of a wider range of criteria in judging quality control. Overall, the process of knowledge production is becoming more reflexive and affects at the deepest levels what shall count as 'good...

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