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absolute abstraction accidents antithesis arbitrary assert attitude authority broke brought ceremony Chivalry church commerce conceives conduct consciousness conservative position Correspondingly course defeat divine right dogma drama embodied ENGLISH POLITICAL eternal order exaggerated personal expression external extra-natural fact gardener give glory honor idea of kingship ideal implies impose individual action individual worth infer inherent value institutions intellectual involve the king judgement justice K. J. Act King John king's L. W. ELDER latter leader lies lost man's meaning mediaeval ment merit moral isolation motive nation natural laws occur old beliefs opportunities pass perhaps personal relations POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY pope principle problem pursuit question real individual reality recognised reflective regarded relation of king Renaissance represented Richard's righteousness seeking sense significance situation skeptical social relation socialisation society exists solution solve sovereign speech sphere spirit supernatural things tion tradition true underlying universal individual upright variance versal vital
Page 5 - I, 508). His skepticism implies that even a king cannot act contrary to natural laws. A king's power lies in being at one with nature: not opposed. So far as kingship is a divine right, just so far is it arbitrary and non-natural. Arbitrary, extra-natural kingship, Gaunt implies, has no real power. •Even York
Page 5 - though intimations of the same spirit are found in Richard himself. While the speeches of the latter may be affected, there is implied a concession to that new consciousness in the people. It indicates on Richard's part a notion of kingly responsibility even though that responsibility be but an abstraction in the
Page 4 - What reality have individuals in personal relations with others? If the king is the universal, (the only real individual in the state), then all relations among men are abstractions, unless centered in the king. Such relations as men have to one another are mediated through the king's
Page 5 - of kings' may be regarded as an hypothesis to allay doubts concerning this eternal order. It is an explanation of an institution so old that its origin and history have been forgotten. If then, the history of this institution is unknown in natural terms, its traditional authority must be explained by reference to another sphere. Hence kingship receives an
Page 6 - 421-5). In fact the king, just because the leader of the people, because he embodies and secures their ends, resigns his individuality to see it re-expressed in the life of the whole. The grim-minded gardener gives expression to a vulgar point of view.
Page 4 - a universal individual, and the growing consciousness of a real life coextensive with society. Why is it that the king by divine right comes to an unhappy end? There is no answer in the mere record of history, and to the
Page 7 - the content of conduct was not real action, but honor. (I, 169). Honor, which may be called the supernatural in conduct, is the pursuit of an abstraction formed by taking the principle for the
Page 8 - content of conduct. Chivalry of course reflects the morality of an age which has lost its sense of reality and leaves the world behind in search of signs and wonders. Conduct in such an
Page 6 - to new ends. The gardener is even reactionary, since, by confusing the state with the king as the only real individual in the state, he implies a return to the conservative position.