Family, market and community: equity and efficiency in social policy
OECD, 1997 - Family & Relationships - 231 pages
Social policy is under pressure in OECD countries because of concerns about public finances and changing works and family patterns. Over recent decades, social protection systems have successfully provided individual and families in need with income support and access to services. But policies which worked well when they were first introduced, sometimes 50 years ago, may now be protecting the wrong people against the wrong risks.How can labor market and social exclusion be tackled? How can we help those with low skills to get jobs and generate incomes to meet the needs of their families? How can we broaden the sources of income for those who are retired and ensure that those requiring long-term care services receive the right package of care?This book examines new policy strategies intended to protect people against distress over the life cycle. These strategies need to be equitable while promoting economic efficiency.
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Introduction by Donald J ohnston
1 Net income replacement ratios net retirement pensionnet earnings
The challenges to social protection
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_j _j _j Australia average Belgium benefits Canada carers cent changes child contributions costs Czech Republic DC schemes decline Denmark disability early retirement earnings economic effective elderly employment Europe European Community financial poverty Finland fN fN fN France Germany growth households human capital income support increase industrialised inequality inter-generational Ireland Italy Japan labour force labour market long-term low-skilled workers Luxembourg marriage marriage Total mothers Netherlands non-elderly Norway O O fN o o o OECD countries OO OO OO overall parents Paris participation PAYG pension systems population Portugal poverty gap poverty line poverty rates problem programmes proportion reduce reform relative poverty retirement age risks scenario sector social expenditure social insurance Social Policy social protection social security social transfers Spain subsidy Sweden Table trend United Kingdom welfare women young