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approach arrangement Baltic republics bank notes central bank council central bank financing central bank liquidity central bank system Centre for Economic CEPR Discussion Papers commercial banks common central bank common currency create currency board current account convertibility Draft Treaty Eastern Europe Economic and Monetary Economic Policy Research Economic Union enterprise sector ESCB European System exchange rate system federative financial constraints fiscal discipline fixed exchange rate flexibility foreign exchange reserves G Bertola government deficits independent currencies individual republics international institutions intervention credits Macroeconomic member countries Monetary Framework monetary policy monetary union money supply multilateral payments union national currencies optimum currency area parallel currency Peter Bofinger political regional allocation representatives of international republican central bank republican governments reserve needs ruble currency seignorage separate currencies situation Soros l99l Soviet Union stability state-owned enterprises stringency System of Central system of independent trade flows transactions transition to separate Union SEMU vis-a-vis weak currencies Yavlinsky