Experimental Physics (Google eBook)

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K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Company, 1899 - Physics - 664 pages
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Contents

Mass
14
Units of mass and force
16
Genera laws of motion
17
Vertical projection
19
Horizontal and oblique projection
21
it Quantity of motionForce of impact
23
Work
24
is Vis viva
25
Energy__
26
Composition of motionsParallelogram of forces
29
Motion and equilibrium on an inclined plane
32
Screws
34
Composition of two parallel forces acting in a plane at differe it points of a body
36
Wedge
37
Couples
41
Composition of forces acting at different points of a rigid body
43
2a Centre of parallel forcesCentre of gravity
44
Lever
47
Pulleys
51
Machines
52
Stability
54
The balance
56
Central motion
60
Centripetal force
62
Centrihigal force
64
Gyratory motion
68
Angular velocity
71
Pendulum
72
IAGE
74
Seconds pendulumDetermination of g
77
4 Foucault s pendulum
78
Physical pendulum
79
Keplers laws of planetary motion
81
Universal gravitation
82
SOLIDS 47 General properties of bodies
88
AtomsMolecules
89
Elements
92
Molecular forces
93
Cohesion
94
Elasticity
96
Elastic vibrations
99
Crystallization
101
Impact
104
Friction
107
LIQUIDS mDKOSTATICS 57 Liquids Ill 58 Transmission of pressure
111
Effect of gravity
113
Downward pressure
115
Lateral pressure
117
Buoyancy
118
termination of volumeSpecific gravity Density
120
Flotation
123
Hydrometers araometers
124
Efflux of liquids
127
Efflux through tubes
128
Reaction of issuing jets of liquid
129
Watermotors
130
Compressibility of liquids
132
Cohesion and adhesion of liquids
133
Liquid filmsBubbles
135
Angle of contact
136
Capillarity
137
7G Solution
138
Diffusion
139
Osmose
140
GASES aerostatics 79 Expansive force
142
Barometers
144
Mariottes law 14i
149
Barometric formula
151
Manometers
152
Airpump
153
Condensing pumps
158
Diving bell
159
Applications of atmospheric pressure
161
Heros ball
166
Hydraulic ram
167
Efflux of gases
168
The pneumatic trough
169
Gasometers
170
Gasmeters
171
HEAT 98 Heat
177
Thermometer
178
Expansion of solids
182
Expansion of liquids
187
Anomaly of water
190
Expansion of gases
191
Air thermometers
194
MariotteGayLussacs lawAbsolute temperature
195
Deviations from MariotteGayLussacs law
197
Specific gravity of gases
198
MeltingMelting pointMelting heat
199
Freezing mixtures
203
VaporizationEvaporation
205
Tension of saturated vapours
208
Ebullition of boiling
211
Leidenfrosts phenomenon
214
Vaporization within an airfilled space
215
Heat of vaporization
216
Distillation
217
Heat of evaporation
218
Specific gravity of a vapourVapour densitv
220
Moisture of the atmosphere
223
Liquefaction of gases
227
Graphical representation of the behaviour of gases and vapours
231
Specific heat
233
Conduction of heat
240
Radiation of heat
245
Mechanical theory of heat
247
Structure of matter
248
Kinetic theory of gases
251
Second proposition of the mechanical theory of heatEntropy
254
Steamengine
255
MAGNETISM 132 Magnetism
258
Molecular magnets
259
Forms of magnetsKeeperPortative force
260
Methods of magnetization
261
Terrestrial magnetism
262
Magnetic meridianDeclination
263
Inclination 205
265
Intensity of terrestrial magnetism 207
267
Variations 208
268
Magnetometer 209
269
Coulombs law
270
Magnetic fieldLines of forceEquipotential surfaces
271
Magnetic moment
272
Determination of horizontal intensity and magnetic moment
273
Influence of a magnetic field
274
ELECTRICITY 150 Klectritication
275
Insulation
276
Quantity of electricityElectrical mass
278
Simultaneous production of both electricities
279
Density of electricity
280
Electrostatic pressure
281
Action of points
282
Coulombs law
283
Action of an electrified sphere 286
286
Electrical fieldPotentialEquipotential surface
287
Fall of potential
289
Electrical capacity
290
Values of potential and capacity
291
Energy of the charge
292
Electrification by induction
294
Suction of points
295
Explanation of electrical phenomena by induction
296
Electroscope
297
Electrical spark
298
Brush discharge or electrical glow
299
Electrophorus
300
Electrical machines
301
Condensers
305
Ley den jarsFranklins plate
308
Discharging electrometer
313
Dielectric constants 314?
314
Dielectric polarization
315
Residual charge
316
Lichtenbergs figures
318
The dry pile of Zamboni
337
The electric or galvanic current
338
Galvanic battery
339
Switches commutators or gvrotropes
343
Electrolysis
344
Electrolytic and metallic conduction
348
Faradays electrolytic laws
349
Theory of electrolysis
350
Voltameters
351
Deviation of the magnetic needle
352
Galvanoscope
353
Sine galvanometer
355
Tangent galvanometer
356
Galvanic polarization
358
Nonpolarizing electrodes
359
Constant galvanic elements
360
ResistanceConductivity
361
Unit of resistance
363
RheostatsRheochord
364
Ohms law
366
Applications of Ohms law
368
Constant galvanic elements
370
Branched circuitsShunts
371
Wheatstones bridge
372
The process of compensation
373
Kirchhoff s laws
374
Flow of currents in conducting bodies
375
Heat of the currentJoules law
376
Galvanic sparks
377
Davys arc light
378
Peltiers effect
380
Electromagnets
382
Solenoids
384
Magnetic field about a current
386
Electromagnetic rotation
388
RiotSavarta law
389
Current elements
390
Absolute electromagnetic unit of currcntstrcngt h
391
Electromagnetic telegraphy
392
The magnetic hammer
396
Electric clocks
397
Electrical arc lamps
399
VoltmetersAmmeters
401
Other electrodynamic experiments
403
The elcctrodynamometer
404
257 Amperes theory of magnetism
405
lntluction 40G 259 Voltaic induction
406
Magnetic induction
408
Lenzs law
409
Electromotive force of induced currents
410
Absolute electromagnetic unit of electromotive force
411
Extra currentSelfinduction
412
Measurement of the galvanic resistance in electrolytes
413
Physiological effects of induced currents
414
Inducing apparatus
415
Sparking apparatusInductors
416
Geisslers Plueckers tubes
418
Magnetoelectrical machines
425
Dynamoelectrical machines
428
Electrical transmission of power
429
Transformers
430
Rotatingcurrent motors
431
Earthinduction
433
Determination of the absolute unit by an earthinductor
435
Damping
436
The microphone
437
Diamagnetism
438
Absolute system of units
440
WAVES AND SOUND A WAVE MOTION 284 Wave motion
445
Interference
451
Stationary wave
456
it SOUND ACOUSTICS 287 Sound
457
Enfeeblement of sound due to transmission
458
Velocity of propagation
459
Reflection of sound
461
Sounds of various kindsSirens
463
The scale gamut
465
Absolute vibrationnumbers or frequencies
468
Wavelengths
469
Longitudinal vibration of bars
475
Kundts tubes
476
Vibrating plates
479
Composition of rectangular vibrations
480
Vibrography
481
Interference of sound waves
482
Beats
483
Differencetones
484
Quality
485
Vocal sounds
489
PhonographGrammophone
490
Hearing
491
LIGHT optics 313 LightSources
492
Nonluminous bodiesDiffuse reflection
493
Transparency
494
Camera obscura
496
Visual angle
497
Photometry
498
The velocity of propagation of light
502
Law of reflection
504
Applications of plane mirrors
506
Inclined mirrors
507
The sextant
508
Spherical mirrors
509
32ti RefractionTotal reflection
516
Atmospheric reflection
522
Prisms
523
Lenses
526
Refraction by a spherical surface
534
Systems of lenses
535
Spherical aberration
537
Telescope
539
Dispersion
544
The rainbow
546
Halo
548
Pure spectrum _
549
Fraunnofers lines
550
Spectrometer
551
Achromatism
552
Absorption of light
555
Spectrum analysis
558
FluorescenceUltraviolet rays
564
PhosphorescenceUltrared rays
566
Thermal effects of the rays
568
Radiometer
571
Chemical action of lightPhotography
572
Energy of solar radiation
574
Fresnels experiment
577
Wavelength Frequency
581
Huyghens principle
582
Explanation of reflection and refraction
583
Dopplers principle
587
Emission and absorption
588
Diffraction
589
Gratings
593
Court
596
Colour rings of thin platesNewtons rings
597
Stationary light waves
598
Photographing colours
599
Polarization of light
600
Double refraction
606
Polarizing apparatus
614
Chromatic polarization
616
Rotation of the plane of polarization
620
Magnetic rotation of the plane ofpolarization
632
Other relationships between electrical and luminous phenomena
633
Electrical vibrationsElectromagnetic theory of light
634
The eye
637
The reduced eye
639
Binocular vision
641
Persistence of retinal impressions
643
Irradiation
645
Perception of colours
646
Registry ok Names
649
Index
653

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 81 - These are: (1) The orbits of the planets are ellipses, with the sun at a common focus. (2) As a planet moves in its orbit, the line joining the planet and sun sweeps over equal areas in equal intervals of time. Also called "law of equal areas.
Page 18 - Change of motion is proportional to the impressed force and takes place in the direction of the straight line in which the force acts.
Page 81 - Radius vector of each planet describes equal areas in equal times; (3) The squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the Sun.
Page 83 - Newton generalized the law of attraction into a statement that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force which varies directly as the product of their masses and inversely as the square of the distance between them; and he thence deduced the law of attraction for spherical shells of constant density.
Page 367 - Ike current is directly proportional to the electromotive force and inversely proportional to the resistance.
Page 63 - The force is proportional to the square of the velocity and inversely proportional to the radius of turn during radial acceleration.
Page 81 - The known principal planets, in order of their distance from the Sun are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.
Page 505 - ... the angle of reflection is always equal to the angle of incidence, the image for any point can be seen only in the reflected ray prolonged.
Page 95 - Calcitespar 4. Fluorspar 5. Apatite 6. Feldspar 7. Quartz 8. Topaz 9. Sapphire 10. Diamond...
Page 409 - A and fi be changed, of which A is traversed by a current, a current is induced in B in such a direction that, by its electrodynamic action on the current in A, it would have imparted to the conductors a motion of the contrary kind to that by which the inducing •iftion was produced.

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