Islamic revival in British India: Deoband, 1860-1900
In a study of the vitality of Islam in late nineteenth-century north India, Barbara Metcalf explains the response of Islamic religious scholars ( ulama) to the colonial dominance of the British and the collapse of Muslim political power. Focussing on Deoband, the most important Islamic seminary of the period, she discusses the ways in which the ulama enhanced a sense of cultural continuity in a period of alien rule. Deprived of a Muslim state, the leaders of Deoband sought to renew Islamic spiritual life by teaching early Islamic principles. To this end, they concerned themselves with popular behaviour and the education of both elite and non-elite Muslims through the spoken language, Urdu.
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The Pattern of Islamic Reform
The Ulama in Transition
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Abdu'l-Hayy Abdu'l-Qadir Ahl-i Hadis Ahmad Riza Aligarh alim Arabic Arwdh-i Saldsah Arya ashraf Barelwi belief Bengal British Christians culture Daru'l-'Ulum debate Delhi Deobandis disciples donors example faith Farangi Farangi Mahall fatawa Fazl-i fiqh followers Hajji hammad Hanafi Hindu Husain Ahmad Ibid Imam Imdadu'llah important India Indian Muslims influence institutions intellectual Islam jihad Lahore late nineteenth century learning Lucknow madrasah Maulana Maulawi missionaries mosque movements Mughal Muhammad Ashiq Ilahl Muhammad Isma'il Muhammad Qasim Muhammad Ya'qub Muslims Nadwah Naqshbandi Nawwab official opponents Oudh Pakistan particularly period Persian political position practice prayer Prophet Punjab Qadiri Qur'an Rashid Ahmad reform reformist religion religious leaders religious leadership role rulers Saharanpur saints Sawanih-i Sayyid Ahmad Khan scholars Shah Abdu'l-'Aziz Shah Waliyu'llah shaikh Shi'ah Shi'i Siddiq Hasan social spiritual style Sufi sufism Sunni Taliban taqlid Tazkiratu'r-Rashid teacher teaching tradition translated ulama Urdu wrote zikr Zuhuru'l-Hasan