Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes
Originally a chapter in the "Handbook of Political Science", this analysis develops the fundamental destinction between totalitarian and authoritarian systems. It emphasizes the personalistic, lawless, non-ideological type of authoritarian rule the author calls the "sultanistic regime"
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Alfred Stepan analysis army authoritarian regimes authoritarian rule Bracher bureaucratic certainly characteristics characterized citizens commitment communist comparative competitive democracies concept conflict consolidation corporativism corporativist countries created crisis criticism Cuba cultural decisions democ democracy democratic dictatorship distinctive dominant economic elections elements elite emergence emphasis Europe fascist forms formulated function Germany groups Hannah Arendt historical Hitler ideological important institutionalization institutions intellectual interests Italian Fascism lead leaders leadership legitimacy liberal liberal democratic limited pluralism Linz Marxist mass ment military mobilization modern movement Nazi Nazism nondemocratic regimes NSDAP oligarchies organizations participation particularly percent perspective phase policies political systems polyarchies population populist post-totalitarian pretotalitarian revolution revolutionary role rulers sectors single party social society Soviet Union stability Stalin Stalinist statism Stepan strata structure sultanistic tarian tendencies term terror tion tional totalitar totalitarian parties totalitarian systems traditional transition typology ultimately variety