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11 Pass 3rd pers adjectives Anga Anusvara aorist Atmanepada Bahuvrihi bases ending beginning with consonants benedictive Bha base Brahman Caus chakdra changed Chur compounds conjugated consonants declension declined derived desiderative Dhatupatha drop dropt Dual Dvigu ending in consonants forms gerund grammar Hu class inserted Instr intensive intermediate Karmadharaya lengthen letters likewise masc masculine monosyllabic nasal native grammarians neut neuter nominal bases nouns Optative optional Pada Pada base Panini Parasmaipada participle passive Periphrastic Plur Plural preceded prepositions pronouns radical vowel reduplicated perfect reduplicative syllable Roots beginning roots ending rules Sandhi Sanskrit Satam second aorist semivowels sibilant Siddh.-Kaum Sing Singular special tenses suffixes take Guna Tatpurusha terminations beginning Verbal bases verbs ending Visarga vowel Vriddhi words
Page 311 - STANFORD UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES CECIL H. GREEN LIBRARY STANFORD, CALIFORNIA 94305-600 (415) 723-1493 All books may be recalled after 7 days DATE DUE...
Page xii - Laghu-Kaumudl by the late Dr. Ballantyne has enabled even beginners to find their way through the labyrinth of native grammar. The time has come, I believe, for new and critical editions of Panini and his commentators. A few instances may suffice to show the insecurity of our ordinary editions. The commentary to Pan. vn. 2, 42, as well as the Sarasvatl II.
Page 139 - Sanskrit grammarians have divided all verbs into ten classes, according to certain modifications which their roots undergo before the terminations- of the Present, the Imperfect, the Optative, and Imperative. This division is very useful, and will be retained with some slight alterations. One and the same root may belong to different classes. Thus «T3...
Page 1 - To admit, however, the independent invention of a native Indian alphabet is impossible. Alphabets were never invented, in the usual sense of that word. They were formed gradually, and purely phonetic alphabets always point back to earlier, syllabic or ideographic, stages.
Page 62 - Sanskrit nouns have three genders, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter; three numbers, Singular, Dual, and Plural; and eight cases, Nominative, Accusative, Instrumental, Dative, Ablative, Genitive, Locative, and Vocative.
Page xii - Guna, Vriddhi, Guna, Vriddhi, prohibition, option, again Vriddhi and then exception, these, with the change of ri into a semivowel in the first instance, are the nine results.
Page 20 - H^ffl. vdhyah prayatnah, mode of articulation at the close of the utterance of the sound, which produces the qualities of surd, sonant, aspirated, and unaspirated, as explained in § 58, 59. t Some grammarians differ in their description of the degrees of closing or opening of the organs. Some ascribe to the semivowels...
Page 137 - TRfU f*j»i«t^ krodham inayate, he turns away or dismisses wrath ; a subtle distinction which it is possible to appreciate when stated, but difficult to bring under any general rules. Again, in Sanskrit as well as in Greek, some verbs are middle in certain tenses only, but active or middle in others; eg Atm.
Page xi - Panini and his successors. The grammatical system of Hindu grammarians is so peculiar, that rules which we should group together, are scattered about in different parts of their manuals. We may have the general rule in the last, and the exceptions in the first book, and even then we are by no means certain that exceptions to these exceptions may not occur somewhere else. I shall give but one instance. There is a root unj jdgri, which forms its Aorist by adding ^ isham, $ i£, $ir it.
Page 19 - The nom. sing, of faft^chiktrsh is faih chikth, because here the ru not followed by a tenuis. Classification of Consonants. § 56. Before we can examine the changes of final and initial consonants, according to the rules of external Sandhi, we have to explain what is meant by the place and the quality of consonants. 1. The throat, the palate, the roof of the palate, the teeth, the lips, and the nose are called the places or organs of the letters. (See $ 4.) 2. By contact between the tongue and the...