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100 degrees analytical expression arithmetical progression assumed atmospheric air atmospheric pressure ature calculated calorimeter carbonic acid Carnot's theory change of temperature change of volume Clausius column combustion compression condensation condition consequently considered constant pressure constant temperature constant volume cylinder deduced demonstration denote descent of caloric determined dynamical theory elastic fluid engine equation exactly expansion experimental experiments expression external former paper formula function gaseous laws Gay-Lussac Gay-Lussac's law hypothesis infinitely small Joule kilogram latent heat liquid magnitude maximum density mechanical effect mechanical equivalent meter motion motive power developed motive power produced numbers obtain operations original volume perature permanent gases piston power of heat principle quantity of caloric quantity of heat quantity of motive ratio refrigerator Regnault result saturated steam specific heat steam-engine substance tempera theoretical theory of heat thermal tion total heat transfer ture unit of heat values water vapor weight zero
Page 116 - It is impossible by means of inanimate material agency to derive mechanical effect from any portion of matter by cooling it below the temperature of the coldest of the surrounding objects.
Page 10 - ... quantity by the compression of the elastic fluids. This preliminary idea being established, let us imagine an elastic fluid, atmospheric air for example, shut up in a cylindrical vessel, abed (Fig. 1), provided with a movable diaphragm or piston, cd. Let there be also two bodies, A and B, kept each at a constant temperature, that of A being higher than that of B.
Page 116 - If this axiom be denied for all temperatures, it would have to be admitted that a self-acting machine might be set to work and produce mechanical effect by cooling the sea or earth, with no limit but the total loss of heat from the earth and sea, or, in reality, from the whole material world.
Page 111 - To distinguish this motion from others, and to signify the cause of our sensation of heat," and of the expansion or expansive pressure produced in matter by heat, "the name repulsive motion has been adopted *." 2. The dynamical theory of heat, thus established by Sir Humphry Davy, is extended to radiant heat by the discovery of phenomena, especially those of the polarization of radiant heat, •which render it excessively probable that heat propagated through "vacant space," or through diathermanic...
Page 125 - Water," by my elder brother, still hold. Also, we see that Carnot's expression for the mechanical effect derivable from a given quantity of heat by means of a perfect engine in which the range of temperatures is infinitely small, expresses truly the greatest effect which can possibly be obtained in the circumstances; although it is in reality only an infinitely small fraction of the whole mechanical equivalent of the heat supplied; the remainder being irrecoverably lost to man, and therefore "wasted,
Page 115 - If an engine be such, that when it is worked backwards, the physical and mechanical agencies in every part of its motions are all reversed, it produces as much mechanical effect as can be produced by any thermodynamic engine, with the same temperatures of source and refrigerator, from a given quantity of heat.
Page 146 - This formula, established without any assumption admitting of doubt, expresses the relation between the heat developed by the compression of any substance whatever, and the mechanical work which is required to effect the compression, as far as it can be determined without hypothesis by purely theoretical considerations. 64. The preceding formula leads to that which I formerly gave for the case of fluids subject to the gaseous laws; since for such we have pv=Pov0(l+-Et) ....... (1), from which we...
Page 121 - But if the hydrogen were allowed to burn in the oxygen, within the electrolytic vessel, and the engine to waste all its work without producing any other than thermal effects (as it would do, for instance, if all its work were spent in continuously agitating a limited fluid mass), the total heat emitted would be precisely the same in each of these two pieces of apparatus as in the wire between A, and B,.
Page 117 - Carnot himselff ; and that it is false, where mechanical work is, on the whole, either gained or spent in the operations, may (as I have tried to show above) be considered to be perfectly certain. It must then be admitted that Carnot's original demonstration utterly fails, but we cannot infer that the proposition concluded is false. The truth of the conclusion appeared to me, indeed, so probable, that I took it in connexion with Joule's principle, on account of which Carnot's...