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Economic Aspects of Preservative Treatment
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absorption acid American Wood-Preservers Ammonium phosphate applied Assoc attack average buildings cell cent chemicals coal-tar creosote coatings commercial concrete construction copper cost crossties cubic foot damage decay deterioration Douglas fir eastern hemlock effect empty-cell exposed extent favorable fire fire-retarding Forest Products Laboratory full-cell fungi fungus hardwoods heartwood heating holes impregnated incising increase insects installation less lumber machine marine borers material ment mercuric chloride method moisture content naphthenate obtained paint patent penetration pentachlorophenol period petroleum phenols piles plant poles posts practice preservative oils preservative treatment pressure Proc protection railway relatively resin resistance retention salts sapwood shipworms sodium sodium fluoride softwoods solution southern pine species stain steaming structures suitable surface tank temperature termites tests timber tion tive toxic tracheids treated timber treated wood treating cylinder U.S. Dept U.S. Forest Products untreated usually vacuum water-borne preservatives zinc chloride