Climate Change, 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was set up jointly by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organisation in 1988 to provide an authoritative international consensus of scientific opinion on climate change. This report, Climate Change 1994 prepared by IPCC Working Groups I and II, reviews the latest scientific evidence on the following key topics: • Radiative forcing of climate change • The latest values of Global Warming Potential, a tool for comparing the potential effect on future climate of different anthropogenic factors • The stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere • An evaluation of scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions Climate Change 1994 forms part of a special Report for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiated at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit.
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aerosol anthropogenic anthropogenic aerosols anthropogenic emissions Assessment atmospheric CO2 atmospheric concentrations biomass biomass burning biosphere budget calculations carbon cycle carbon cycle model carbon dioxide carbon intensity carbon storage CFCs chemical chemistry Climate Change cloud CO2 concentration CO2 emissions CO2 fertilisation deforestation distribution droplet emission estimates emission scenarios energy eruption evaluation factor feedbacks Figure ﬂux fossil fuel Geophys global mean greenhouse gases growth rates GtC/yr GWPs halocarbons ice core impact increase indirect effect inﬂuence input assumptions IPCC IS92 Scenarios levels lifetime lower stratosphere measurements methane nitrogen nitrous oxide Northern Hemisphere observations ocean ozone depletion perturbation Pinatubo population ppbv ppmv pptv pre-industrial processes production radiation radiative forcing radiative forcing due range reﬂect regions simulations sinks soil solar sources stabilisation stratospheric stratospheric ozone sulphate aerosol sulphur surface Table temperature terrestrial Tg/yr trends tropical tropopause tropospheric ozone uncertainty uptake variations Wm'z