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accelerated apparatchiks based on economies become Bulgaria central planning collectivist-etatist communist competition consequence constraints costs created Czechoslovakia decline decreasing democracy deterioration developments differentials distorted East European STEs Eastern Europe economic growth economic reforms economies of scale effects efficiency employment structure enterprises entrepreneurship environment etatist excess demand expansion export factors factors of production firms GNP per capita greater groups growth rates hidden inflation high resource intensity higher Hungarian Hungary impact important income increase increasingly innovation investment labour latter left-leaning parties less liberal and market-oriented living standards macroeconomic managers market economies market system market-oriented order material inputs ment nomenklatura performance period Poland policies political problems production redistributive coalitions reduce relative result role Romania scenario share of industry shift smaller social societies Soviet Union Soviet-type economies statistics structural change system-specific taxes technological change tion trade unions trend wage welfare West Western economies Winiecki workers