Settlement Ecology: The Social and Spatial Organization of Kofyar Agriculture
What determines agrarian settlement patterns? Glenn Davis Stone addresses this question by analyzing the spatial aspects of agrarian ecology--the relationship between how farmers farm and where they settle--and how farming and settlement change as population density rises. Crosscutting the fields of cultural anthropology, archaeology, geography, and agricultural economics, Settlement Ecology presents a new perspective on the process of agricultural intensification and explores the relationships between intensification and settlement decision making. Stone insists that paleotechnic ("traditional") agriculture must be seen as a social process, with the social organization of agricultural work playing a key role in shaping settlement characteristics. These relationships are demonstrated in a richly documented case study of the Kofyar, who have been settling a frontier in the Nigerian savanna. The history of agricultural change and the development of the settlement pattern are reconstructed through ethnography, archival research, and aerial photos and are analyzed using innovative graphical methods. Stone also reflects on the limits of ecological determination of settlement, comparing the farming and settlement trajectories of the Kofyar and Tiv on the same frontier.
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Causality in Agrarian Settlement Systems
Agrarian Production and Settlement
The Kofyar Homeland
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Africa agrarian settlement Agricultural Intensification agricultural movement analysis Anthropology Archaeology attraction Benue Boserup census Central Place Theory chapter colonial communities compounds core area cost crops cultivation cultural dispersed distance Doemak Ecology economic edited effect ethnic factors farmers farmsteads field Figure Ganguk Gankogom Geographers Glenn Davis Goemai Goewan groups Hausa hill villages homeland hunter-gatherer intensification slope intensive interfarm Jangwa Clay Plains Kaups Kofyar settlement Kwalla Kwallala Kwande land pressure landscape Lardang Latok macrocompound mar muos mengwa ment Merniang microethnic migration millet millet beer mobilizing move Mwahavul Namu Plains Namu Sand Plains neighbors Netting Nigeria piedmont pioneers Plateau plots population density Press pull relationship residence Rural Settlement sample sargwat savanna season settle settlement pattern settlement system settlers Shendam shifting cultivation shows social propinquity sociosettlement soils sorghum spatial Stone swidden theory tion toenglu trips tropics tural ungwa boundaries Ungwa Kofyar yams