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THE NONOIL DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRY IMBALANCES
GLOBAL THREATS TO FINANCIAL STABILITY
asset diversification balance of payments billion in 1978 borrowing central banks continued current account deficit current account surplus cyclical positions Debt Service decline deficit countries demand management policies depreciation discussed economic equilibrium European Community European Monetary European Monetary System exchange rate changes expected extent external factors floating exchange rates foreign currency Foreign Exchange Market Fujioka global growth rates imports industrial countries inflationary instability interest rates international bank lending international liquidity Iran J-curve effects Kuwait low income MacLaury non-oil developing countries OECD official offset oil price oil shock OPEC countries OPEC surplus payments adjustment payments position percent period persistent imbalances price increases problems recent reduced relative prices reserve assets reserve currency risk Saudi Arabia sector shift substantial surplus and deficit surplus countries TABLE Tokyo Trilateral Commission trilateral countries U.S. current account U.S. deficit U.S. dollar United Kingdom World Bank world economy world payments