## Thermodynamics: Foundations and Applications (Google eBook)Designed for both undergraduate and graduate students, this authoritative milestone in the foundational development of thermodynamics provides a unique reference for all physicists and engineers. Basic concepts and applications are discussed in complete detail with attention to generality and logical consistency, removing ambiguities and limitations of traditional presentations. Worked-out examples and end-of-chapter problems illustrate the use of energy and entropy balances as powerful analytical keystones in physics and engineering. The text provides material for undergraduate and graduate courses. At the introductory level, it covers heat engines, stable-equilibrium-state models for ideal-gas, incompressible-fluid and solid behaviors, heat, work and bulk-flow interactions, thermodynamic efficiency, energy conversion systems, energy, and availability/ At the intermediate level, it covers ideal and nonideal mixtures, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and combustion. At the advanced level, the unique non-traditional order of exposition of the basic concepts and principles (system, property, state, process, first law, energy, equilibrium, stable equilibrium, second law, entropy) allows rigorous general definitions of energy and entropy valid for all systems (large and small, few- and many- particles) and all states (stable and non-stable equilibrium, as well as non-equilibrium). In particular, entropy is defined before and independently of the definitions of temperature and heat, and of the simple-system model for many-particle systems. |

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adiabatic availability adiabatic process amounts of constituents available energy bulk-ﬂow chemical equilibrium chemical potential chemical potential equality chemical reaction chemical reaction mechanism coefﬁcients composite compressor constant constituents and parameters deﬁned deﬁnition denote efﬁciency electricity energy and entropy energy balance engine entropy balances entropy rate environment equal equation example ﬁeld Figure ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁxed ﬂow rate ﬂuid Freon fuel function gases Gibbs free energy heat interaction heat pump hydrogen ideal-gas initial inlet intemal intensive properties irreversibility isentropic kJ/kg kJ/kmol kJkg liquid mass Maxwell relations mixture mole fraction molecules mutual stable equilibrium nitrogen oxygen partial phase piston pressure products of combustion properties pump rate balance ratio reaction coordinate reaction mechanism relation reservoir respect result reversible weight process saturated simple system Solution speciﬁc heat speciﬁc volume stoichiometric stream substance temperature thermodynamics turbine values of amounts vapor yields zero