Nobodies to Somebodies: The Rise of the Colonial Bourgeoisie in Sri Lanka
Nobodies to Somebodies examines the origins and growth of the bourgeoisie in Sri Lanka during British rule - an important but neglected aspect of the country's modern history. It traces its evolution from a 'feudal' society and mercantilist economy, to the age of plantations. In the course of this evolution local merchants accumulated capital through arrack and toll renting, subsequently diversifying into plantation cultivation and graphite mining, thereby making dents in the old caste-based division of labour.This study assigns primacy to class over caste, and details the rise of the new-rich 'Nobodies' of many different castes, ethnicities and religions into the ranks of the 'Somebodies'. It discusses the links between capital accumulation, religious revivalism, ethnic identity and political movements, and the marriage 'cartels' which led to further concentration of wealth.The book focuses on the rentier nature of the bourgeoisie and how they adopted Western culture and lifestyles and were basically collaborative with the colonial rulers. It highlights the constraints on further capitalist development, the obsession of the bourgeoisie with land acquisition and social status, and its consciousness as a class, especially on issues of political reform.
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MAINLY NOBODIES IN A COLONIAL BACKWATER
Transition to a Plantation Economy
Marketing Arrack Among Workers and Peasants
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19th century accumulation acres activities areas arrack farms arrack rents arrack trade Bastian became bourgeoisie British rule Buddhist Burghers capital capitalists caste Central Province Ceylon Ceylon National Congress Charles de Soysa Chettiars Christian cinnamon coconut coffee Colombo Colombo Chetties colonial Coomaraswamy daughter distillers Dutch early economic estates ethnic export Fernando feudal Government Agent Governor goyigama graphite graphite mines Hindu ibid illicit important included India industry investment island Jaffna James Peiris Jayawardena Jeronis Pieris Jeronis Soysa Kalutara Kandy Kandyan karava Korale labour land Legislative Council Lindamullage liquor trade Maha Mudaliyar marriage married Mendis merchant missionaries Moratuwa Mudaliyar Muslim Negombo new-rich Obeyesekere officials owners Panadura Perera period plantation sector planters political produce profits Ramanathan reforms renters retail rubber S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike salagama schools Senanayake Silva Sinhala Sinhalese SLNA social society Sri Lanka Susew Soysa Tamil tavern Vidanalage wealth Western Province women workers