Pulping the South: Industrial Tree Plantations and the World Paper Economy
In its search for cheap wood to supply raw material, today's pulp and paper industry is throwing its net every wider across the world. One of the more disturbing results is the spread of fast-growing pulpwood plantations in the forests, pastures and farmlands of the South.
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Introducing Pulp and Paper
Emergence of a Global System
Impacts on People and their Environment
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agencies agricultural Aracruz areas Arjo Wiggins Asia Bahia biodiversity Brazil Canada cent chapter chemical Chile Chilean commercial consultants corporations countries crops Cruz and Rivera degraded demand economic ecosystems effects environmental environmentalists eucalyptus plantations example export farmers fast-growing Finland Finnish firms forest industries forestry global Goncalves grasslands groups growth hardwood hectares impacts important increased Indonesia industrial plantations investment Jaakko Poyry Japan Japanese kraft land large-scale logging market pulp meanwhile million hectares million tonnes monoculture native forests NGOs Nordic countries North Northern nutrients paper consumption paper industry paper mills pine plantations plant political programmes promoting pulp and paper pulp mill pulp production pulpwood plantations raw material recycled regions result rural sector social softwood soil South Africa Southern species sq km subsidies Thailand timber tonne-per-year tonnes tree plantations Uruguay villagers WALHI wood chips workers World Bank