## Principles of thermodynamicsDefinitions; Pressure and temperature; Work and heat; The first law of thermodynamics; Applications of the first law to physical changes; Thermochemistry; Partial molar properties; The second law of thermodynamics; Applications of the second law; Work content and free energy; The third law of thermodynamics; Criteria of equilibrium and stability; Open systems. |

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adiabatic adiabatic process applied boundary caloric theory calorimeter Carnot cycle Carnot engine Chem chemical potential chemical reaction closed system coefficient components composition computed constant pressure constant volume constant-pressure heat capacity corresponding curve cycle defined derived determined differential equivalent example expansion experiment experimental expressed finite flow fluid following relations formula weights free energy function gases given heat effect attending heat reservoir Hence heterogeneous system homogeneous system independent infinitesimal initial integration intensive properties irreversible isolated system isothermal process Joule Joule—Thomson law of thermodynamics measured method mixture mole numbers molecules partial molar perfect gas phase Phys possible variation pressure and temperature produced pure substance quantity of heat quasistatic quasistatic process reactants residual entropy reversible process rotational second law Section solid solution species standard molar entropy surroundings system undergoes temperature scale thermodynamic temperature thermometer third law tion vapor variables vessel zero