Historical Linguistics is concerned with the process of language change through time. It investigates how and why the language of individuals, a social group or a whole 'speech community' develops in respect of its pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. Dr Bynon regards language as essentially a dynamic phenomenon, whose character can be at best only partly understood by a static, and necessarily idealized, synchronic approach. In Part I she establishes the theoretical framework by providing a systematic survey of the three main models of language development - the neogrammarian, structuralist, and transformational generative. Examples drawn substantially from English and German, but also from classical languages, French, Welsh and a variety of others, are used to explain and compare these approaches. In Part II she turns to sociolinguistics and shows how changes within a language over a period of time, and changes brought about by contact between languages, are both indicators and agents of more general cultural developments. Accounts of bilingualism and of pidgin and Creole languages are included as well as wider-ranging examples of different kinds of borrowing such as loan words, loan translations and extensions of meaning. The student is provided with a practical and critical guide both to what has been done and what can be done to discover and verify these linguistic relationships. Designed primarily as a textbook for linguistics and philology students, this book will also be of interest to those studying English language, classics and modern languages.
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allophones alternation analogical change analysis back vowel borrowing cognates consonant constitute corresponding creoles deep structure derivational diachronic dialects distribution earlier environment example fact forms French fricative front vowel function gender Germanic languages Greek historical linguistics Indo-European languages inflectional innovations instance interpretation isoglosses Kiparsky Labov language change language family Latin lexical items lexicon loan-words marker means Modern English Modern German morphological morphs neogrammarian noun phrase obstruent Old English Old High German original paradigm past tense phoneme phonological change phonological rules phrase structure rules pidgins plosive plural position postulated pronoun Proto-Indo-European protolanguage recipient language reconstruction reflexes regular related languages reordering represented restructuring result rule addition Sanskrit seen segments semantic sentences simplification singular situation sound change speakers specific speech structuralist suffix surface structure synchronic syntactic systematic tion transformational grammar umlaut underlying representations verb voiced voiceless whereas word-final words
Page 8 - Unser Vater in dem Himmel. Dein Name werde geheiligt. Dein Reich komme. Dein Wille geschehe auf Erden wie im Himmel. Unser täglich Brot gib uns heute. Und vergib uns unsere Schulden, wie wir unsern Schuldigern vergeben. Und führe uns nicht in Versuchung, sondern erlöse uns von dem Übel.
Page 8 - Fater unser thu thar bist in himile, si giheilagot thin namo, queme thin rihhi, si thin uuillo, so her in himile ist, so si her in erdu, unsar brot tagalihhaz gib uns hiutu, inti furlaz uns unsara sculdi, so uuir furlazemes unsaren sculdigon, inti ni gileitest unsih in costunga, uzouh arlosi unsih fon ubile.
Page 2 - ... discrete states is no more a true reflection of the situation. . . . However many language states are considered over a given period their succession will never provide a true picture of the unbroken continuity of language in time. ... It is thus due to the limitations of our methodology that we are faced with the rather absurd situation that language evolution, although observable retrospectively in its results, appears to totally elude observation as a process while it is actually taking place.
Page 7 - AD 1611.— Our Father which art in heauen, hallowed be thy Name. Thy kingdome come.
Page 7 - Our father which art in heauen, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdome come. Thy will be done, in earth, as it is in heauen. Giue vs this day our daily bread.