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What Are Bureaus and Who Are Bureaucrats?
JIV Why Bureaus Are Necessary
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actions activities advocates agencies alternatives analysis basic become behavior patterns benefits biases budget bureau members bureaucratic cause Chapter cials climbers communications conflict conservers coordination costs create decisionmaking decisions develop distortion economic effects environment evaluation example existing external factors formal rules goal consensus Gordon Tullock greater growth H. A. Simon Hence hierarchy ideology important incentive income increase individual indoctrination innovation interest involved large organizations Lewis Coser loyalty major markets Max Weber messages monitoring Morris Janowitz motivated networks Northcote Parkinson offi organizational ossification output performance gap personnel policy space position power setting pressure prestige promotion quid pro quo rational recruitment reduce relationships relatively response result role search agency self-interest shift shrinking violet significant social agents social functions society specific staff structure subformal subordinates sunk costs superiors superman theory tion top-level officials types of officials usually utility zealots