MTBE Remediation Handbook

Front Cover
Ellen E. Moyer, Paul T. Kostecki
Springer, 2003 - Science - 670 pages
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Here is a comprehensive and up-to date compendium of the technology and management of MTBE contamination, exploring the myths which impede successful clean-up techniques, and offering effective solutions. Section I looks at the history, properties, occurrence and assessment of MTBE. Section II discusses applicable remediation technologies. Section III offers remediation case studies.
  

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Contents

1 Introduction
3
Tert Butyl Alcohol
6
Spills
7
Volatilization
9
Chemical and Phyiscal Properties
11
Specific Gravity
14
Vapor Density
15
Henrys Law Constant
16
SAB Report
337
Scientific Understanding
338
Conclusions
342
References
343
Remediation Case Studies
347
Remedial Costs for MTBE in Soil and Ground Water
349
Cost of Cleanup
350
Cost of Comparisons for MTBE and BTEX Remediations
351

References
18
Fate and Transport of MTBE and Other Gasoline Components
19
Transport and Fate of Vapors of MTB in the Unsaturated Zone
20
Partitioning of MTBE from Gasoline Directly to Ground water
21
Separation of MTBE from BTEX FROM A Flow Path
25
Role of dilution and disperion
28
Role of Biodegration
31
Production and Biodegration of TBA
36
False
39
Plume Diving Behavior in Uniform Sand Aquifers
45
Two Possible Life Cycles of Plumes
47
The Plume comes to Steady State Then Recedes Back to the LNAPL
49
The Plume Fails to Come to Steady State and the Hot Spot
50
Overview of Factors that Lead to Long MTBE Plumes
56
Disclaimer
57
MTBE Occurrence in Surface and Ground Water
63
National MTBE Survey and the Northeastern and MidAtlantic States Study
64
Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management NESCAUM
65
Individual State Studies
66
History in California
67
Conclusing
68
References
70
Site Assessment
73
Identification of Receptors
74
Methods of Soil and Ground Water Sample Collection
77
Detailed Assessment
85
Tracers
86
Carbon Isotope Analysis
87
Identifying Migration
88
References
90
Laboratory Analysis of Oxygenated Gasoline Constituents
93
Properties of Oxygenated Gasoline Components
94
Sample Preservation Methods
95
Sample Preparation Methods
100
Concentration of Separated Volatiles
102
Measurement Methods
103
Optimum Methods for Analysis of Fuel Oxygenates in Ground Water
105
Conclusions
115
References
119
Risk Assessment
121
Evaluating Human Health Risks
123
DoseResponse Assessment
128
Exposure Assessment
132
Risk Characterization
138
Evaluating Ecological Risks
148
European Risk Assessment of MTBE
150
Risk Analysis Framework
151
Summary
152
References
154
Applicable Remediation Technologies
169
Receptor Protection
171
Receptors
173
Receptor Threat
174
Vapor Management
176
Water Management
177
Soil Management
185
Conclusion
186
Source Control
189
Tankhold
190
Remediation Technologies
191
Saturated Soils
197
Conclusions
198
References
199
Soil Vapor Extraction Bioventing and Air Sparging
201
Air Sparging
203
Contaminant Considerations
208
Soil Considerations
209
NAPL Saturation
210
FineGrained Lenses
211
Airflow Considerations
212
Airflow and Pressure Relationships
213
Modeling and Pilot Testing
216
Summary of Injection System Effectiveness
217
Enhancements
218
Injecting Gases Other than Air
219
Conclusions
220
In Situ Chemical Oxidation
223
Hydrogen Peroxide
224
Proven Effectiveness in Field or Laboratory
226
Practical Design Considerations
227
Ozone
228
Proven Effectiveness in Field or Laboratory
229
Practical Design Considerations
231
Proven Effectiveness in Field or Laboratory
232
Practical Design Considerations
233
Proven Effectiveness in Field or Laboratory
234
Proven Effectiveness in Field or Laboratory
235
Ultrasound with Ozone
236
ISCO COSTS
237
Permanganate
238
Ultrasound
239
Aerobic In Situ Bioremediation
243
Microbiology and Biochemistry of Aerobic MTBE Bieodegration
244
Kinetics of Metabolism
246
Biodegradation of MTBE Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Consumption of Oxygen
248
Prospects for Biodegration of MTBE in the Field By Native Microorganisms
251
Remedial Technology for Ground Water
253
Disclaimer
260
Anaerobic In Situ Bioremediation
265
Anaerobic Bioremediation Strategies
267
Anaerobic MTBE Biodegradation with different Terminal Electron Acceptors
268
FeIII Reduction
269
Sulfate Reduction
271
Methanogenic Conditions
272
Implications for MTBE and TBA Bioremediation
273
References
276
Phytoremediation of MTBE A Review of the State of the Technology
279
Case Studies
280
Kansas State University
282
University of Iowa
283
University of Colorado
284
State of California Water Resources Control Board
285
Conclusions and Future Work
286
References
287
Ground Water Recovery and Treatment
289
Relationship to Potable Water
290
Ground Water Recovery
291
Design
292
Well Array Design
293
Trench Construction
294
Optimization
295
ReinjectionInfiltration
296
MTBE Specific Issues
297
Ground Water Treatment
298
Granular Activated Carbon Liquid Phase
299
Interferences
303
Manganese
304
Coagulants and Additives
305
Costs
306
Air Stripping
308
LowProfile Air Stripper
309
Mechanical Stripper
310
OffGas Treatment
311
Granular Activated Carbon
312
Biofilters
313
OffGas Treatment Costs
314
Manganese
315
Activated Sludge
316
FixedFilm Reactors
317
Fluidized Bed Bioreactor
319
Membrane Separation Reverse Osmosis
320
Advanced Oxidation Processes
322
CavitationSonication
323
Limitations of AOPS
324
Advantages of AOPS
325
References
327
Monitored Natural Attenuation of MTBE
329
The NRC Strategy for Evaluating Natural Attenuation
330
MTBE and the NRC Report
331
Recent Findings on MTBE and Natural Attenuation
332
Field Experience
336
South Carolina Cost Data
353
Remedial Technologies Used at USTS in New York State
354
Efficiency of Remedial Technologies
355
Summary
358
Disclaimer
359
References
360
Remediation Experiences in Finland
361
Aquifers and Water Service in Finland
362
Practices in Soil and Ground Water Investigation and Risk Assessment at Neste Sites
363
Practices in Soil and Ground Water Remediation at Neste Sites
364
Cost of Remediation of Retail Sites in Finland
366
Case Studies
368
Case 2 Traditional Approach and Methods Applied Successfully to Remediate a Service Station Site and Natural Spring
371
Case 3 Emergency Remediation Operation
373
Forensic Findings The Reasons for the Releases
374
Lessons learned
375
USEPA Case Studies Database for MTBE Remediation
377
Site Selection
388
Site Characteristics
390
Summary
391
References
394
Remediation of Releases Containing MTBE at Gasoline Station Sites ENSR Internationals Experience
395
Why MTBE Makes a Difference and How Do We Exploit Its Properties for Remediation
396
Recovery of MTBE in Ground Water
397
Technology Sequencing
398
SiteSpecific Conditions
399
Remediation Selection Factors
403
Remediation Costs
404
Conclusions
405
Source Control and Point of Entry Treatment at a Massachusetts Site
407
Release History
408
Hydrogeological Parameters
410
Ground Water
411
Receptors
413
Human
414
Cleanup Timeframe
415
Costs
416
References
417
Physical Treatment at a New Hampshire Site
419
Release History
420
Hydrogeological Parameters
421
Fate and Transport
424
Receptors
427
Required Cleanup Levels and Timeframes
428
Cleanup Timeframe
429
Source Removal
430
SVE System
431
Air Sparging System
432
Time Line
433
Physical Treatment at a Massachusetts Site
435
Release History
437
Hydrogeological Parameters
438
Fate and Transport
439
Receptors
440
Exposure Potential
441
Ground Water
442
Costs
443
Strategic Pumping to Divert an MTBEBTEX Plume from Municipal Water Supply Wells
445
Site Description
446
Site Hydrogeology
450
Nature and Extent of Contamination
452
Receptors
453
Remedial Actions
454
Costs
455
Ozone Microbubble Sparging at a California Site
457
Theory
459
Site Description and Release History
460
Previous Environmental Work
461
Site Conditions
464
Expected Oxidant Demand
466
Other Organics
467
Site Cost Comparison
472
References
473
MTBE Cleanup Technology Evaluations at the Port Hueneme NETTS
475
Ground Water Circulation Well Environmental Cleanup Systems
477
In Situ Air Sparging System
479
Extraction of MTBE by a Hollow Fiber Membrane
481
High Energy Electron Injection
484
In Situ Bioremediation of MTBE
489
Direct Injection of a Bacterial Culture to Biodegrade MTBEImpacted Ground Water
491
LargeScale Biobarrier Demonstration
494
In Situ Remediation of MTBE Impacted Aquifer Using Propane Biostimulation
497
Natural Attenuation of MTBE in An Anaerobic Ground Water Plume
500
Natural Attenuation of MTBE in Ground Water Under Methanogenic Conditions
501
Bioremediation at a New Jersey Site Using PropaneOxidizing Bacteria
505
Methodology
506
Microcosm Testing
508
FieldScale System Implementation and Operation
509
Results
510
In Situ Biotreatment Summary
517
References
518
Application of an In Situ Bioremedy Biobarrier at a Retail Gas Station
519
Remediation
520
Monitoring Well System
522
Oxygen Delivery
523
MC Delivery
524
Performance of the Bioremedy Biobarrier
526
System Costs
527
Timeline
529
Ground Water Recovery and Bioreactor Treatment at a California Site
531
Hydrology
532
Remedial Activities
533
Soil Excavation
534
Results
541
Natural Attenuation of Tert Butyl Alcohol at a Texas Chemical Plant
543
Influence of TBA Properties on Natural Attenuation
544
Site Description
545
Plant II TBA Plume
548
Natural Attenuation of TBA in the Plant II Area Plume
549
Role of Diffusion in Plant II Area Plume Natural Attenuation
551
Use of Carbon Isotopes to Document TBA Biodegradation
553
Mechanisms of TBA Biodegradation
554
Estimation of Natural Biodegradation Rates
556
Conclusions
560
Natural Attenuation of Benzene and MTBE at Four Midwestern US Sites
563
Trend Analysis Approach
564
Geochemical Approach
566
Hydrogeology
567
Trends
568
Geochemical Conditions
570
Site C
572
Site D
574
Conclusions
577
Recommendations
579
Appendices
581
MTBE Occurrence in Surface and Ground Water
583
Program Status
584
Patterns
594
Conclusions
601
Limitations
602
Summary
604
Northeastern and MidAtlantic States
605
Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management NESCAUM
606
Midwestern States Study
613
Conclusions of the Midwestern States Study
618
Conclusions
623
Water Background
624
Risk Assessment
626
Impacts Further Work
628
Acknowledgement Plume Length Studies Texas Florida and California
629
Texas
630
Florida
631
California
632
History of MTBE in California
633
Comparison of Plume Lengths for MTBE and BTEX and 212 South Carolina Sites
637
Conclusions
640
References
642
Acronyms
647
Primary Author Contact Information
649
Acronyms
655
Copyright

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Fuel Oxygenates
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Limited preview - 2007
Fuel Oxygenates
Damiŕ Barceló
Limited preview - 2007

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TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FINAL REPORT IN-SITU REMEDIATION OF MTBE ...
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About the author (2003)

Mark P. Jensen, PhD, is Professor and Vice Chair for Research in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, where he has been on faculty since 1990. Dr Jensen's research program focuses on the development and evaluation of measures of pain, pain beliefs, and pain coping strategies, as well as on the development and evaluation of psychosocial pain interventions. He is the author or co-author of over 250 scientific articles and book chapters.

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