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India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy
No preview available - 2008
acquired characters action adaptations adjustments alive animal artificial selection behaviour biological brain called changes Chap cited coincident variations congenital variations consciousness cooperating factor correlated creatures Darwin Delage determinate variation direction earlier effect environment experience fact factor formulation further give habit illustration imitation individual accommodation individual's influence inheritance of acquired instinct intelligence Intra-selection involved Lamarckian Lamarckism lines Lloyd Morgan mandible means ment Mental Development mind modifications movement natural selection Neo-Darwinism ontogenetic ontogenic operation of natural organic selection origin orthoplasy Osborn paleontologists phenomena physical heredity plasticity play point of view position Poulton principle problem Professor Cope Professor Groos Professor Lloyd progress psychological psychophysical question recapitulation retrospective rivalry Romanes Romanes Lecture secured seems selec selective thinking sense sexual selection social transmission sort species struggle for existence survival teleology term theory thing thought-variations tion true use-inheritance utility vidual Weismann writer
Page 213 - I should premise that I use the term Struggle for Existence in a large and metaphorical sense, including dependence of one being on another, and including (which is more important) not only the life of the individual, but success in leaving progeny.
Page 110 - The thought of a movement tends to discharge motor energy into the channels as near as may be to those necessary for that movement " (ref. 3). By this organic concentration and excess of movement many combinations and variations are rendered possible, from which the advantageous and adaptive movements may be selected for their utility. These then give renewed pleasure, excite pleasurable associations, and again stimulate the attention, and by these influences the adaptive movements thus struck are...
Page 350 - ... although the results of purely individual response to external forces are not hereditary, yet indirectly they may result in the permanent addition of corresponding powers to the species. The principles involved seem to constitute a substantial gain in the attempt to understand the motive forces by which the great process of organic evolution has been brought about...
Page 184 - But as the primary variations in the phyletic metamorphosis occurred little by little, the secondary adaptations would probably as a rule be able to keep pace with them. Time would thus be gained till, in the course of generations, by constant selection of those germs the primary constituents of which are best suited to one another, the greatest possible degree of harmony may be reached, and consequently a definitive metamorphosis of the species involving all the parts of the individual may occur
Page 351 - The inadequacy of these views is clearly shown when we consider that the external forces which awake response in an organism generally belong to its inorganic (physical or chemical) environment, while the usefulness of the response has relation to its organic environment (enemies, prey, etc.). Thus one set of forces supply the stimuli which evoke a response to another and very different set of forces.
Page 250 - ... which is a testing of the general character of a new experience as calling out the acquired motor habits of the organism ; 2 and second, an extra-organic or environmental selection, which is a testing of the special concrete character of the experience as fitted, through the motor -variations to •which it gives rise, to bring about a new determination in the system in which it goes. These selective tests we may call respectively the test of
Page 103 - This is especially true where intelligent and imitative adaptations are involved, as in the case of instinct. This " may give the reason, eg, that instincts are so often coterminous with the limits of species. Similar structures find the similar uses for their intelligence, and they also find the same imitative actions to be to their advantage. So the interaction of these conscious factors with natural selection brings it about that the structural definition which represents species, and the functional...
Page 398 - A book . . . treating of a subject fraught with significant revelations for every branch of educational science is Professor J. Mark Baldwin's treatise on Mental Development in ' The Child and the Race.' Professor Baldwin's work is comparatively untechnical in character and written in a terse and vigorous style, so that it will commend itself to unprofessional readers. Having been led by his studies...
Page 349 - POULTON'S paper.) IT must be admitted that the adaptation of the individual to its environment during its own lifetime possesses all the significance attributed to it by Professor Osborn, Professor Baldwin, and Professor Lloyd Morgan. These authorities justly claim that the power of the individual to play a certain part in the struggle for life may constantly give a definite trend and direction to evolution, and that although the results of a purely individual response to external forces are not...