## Reflection Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy for Surface AnalysisThis book is a comprehensive review of the theories, techniques and applications of reflection electron microscopy (REM), reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS). The book is divided into three parts: diffraction, imaging and spectroscopy. The text is written to combine basic techniques with special applications, theories with experiments, and the basic physics with materials science, so that a full picture of RHEED and REM emerges. An entirely self-contained study, the book contains much invaluable reference material, including FORTRAN source codes for calculating crystal structures data and electron energy-loss spectra in different scattering geometries. This and many other features makes the book an important and timely addition to the materials science literature for researchers and graduate students in physics and materials science. |

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### Contents

0 Introduction | 1 |

1 Kinematical electron diffraction | 9 |

Part A Diffraction of reflected electrons | 29 |

Part B Imaging of reflected electrons | 129 |

PartC Inelastic scattering and spectrometry of reflected electrons | 241 |

Appendix A Physical constants electron wavelengths and wave numbers | 367 |

Appendix B The crystal inner potential and electron scattering factor | 369 |

Appendix CI Crystallographic structure systems | 374 |

Appendix EI A FORTRAN program for singleloss spectra of a thin crystal slab in TEM | 386 |

Appendix E2 A FORTRAN program for singleloss REELS spectra in RHEED | 390 |

Appendix E3 A FORTRAN program for singleloss spectra of paralleltosurface incident beams ... | 393 |

Appendix E4 A FORTRAN program for singleloss spectra of interface excitation in TEM | 398 |

403 | |

419 | |

Materials index | 431 |

433 | |

Appendix C2 A FORTRAN program for calculating crystallographic data | 378 |

Appendix D Electron diffraction patterns of several types of crystal structures | 382 |

### Common terms and phrases

annealed approximation atomic Auger beam azimuth beam direction beam energy Bloch wave Bragg angle Bragg reﬂection Brillouin zone bulk crystal calculated Cowley crystal surface deﬁned dielectric dielectric function diffraction pattern diﬂraction dislocation distance distribution domains dynamical EELS effect electron beam electron diffraction electron scattering energy loss equation excitation probability ﬁeld Figure ﬁrst ﬂat function high-energy electron incident angle incident beam incident electron inelastic scattering ionization Kikuchi lines lattice layer mrad multislice objective aperture objective lens observed ofthe oxygen parallel particles Peng phase phonon Phys plane propagation reciprocal lattice reciprocal space REELS spectra reﬂected beam reﬂected intensity reﬂection electron microscopy REM images resolution result RHEED pattern scattering theory shown shows slice specimen SPECSHP spectroscopy specularly reﬂected SREM Surf surface reconstruction surface resonance surface steps surface structure Tanishiro technique terraces theory thin ﬁlms Uchida Ultramicroscopy unit cell vacuum vector volume plasmon Wang wavevector X-ray Yagi