Permanent Fortifications (Google eBook)

Front Cover
J. Wiley & Sons, 1887 - 171 pages
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Contents

Influence of Irregularities of Site on the Forms and Com binations of the Elements of Permanent Works ART PAGE 173175 General conditions to b...
97
Conditions of command
98
Remarks upon foregoing subjects
100
DEFILEMENT OF PERMANENT WORKS 180 Remarks upon defilement of permanent works
101
Data for the
102
182185 Limits of defilement
103
Dangerous zones of the site
104
Remarks
105
Front defilement of a redan the command being given
106
Reverse defilement of a redan
108
Position of traverse for reverse defilement
109
Precautions to be taken in locating traverses
110
Defilement of retired from advanced works
112
Defilement by parados and conclusions drawn from experiments
113
CHAPTER VIII
115
Water applied as an active means of defence
116
Stumps of trees as an obstruction
117
Seacoast Defence
118
CHAPTER X
128
ART PAOE 259 Important points to be fortified
130
Advantages offered both in defensive and offensive operations by fortified points on rivers
131
Character of the works necessary for seacoast de fence
132
Defence of important extensive roadsteads
134
Fortifications of Paris and Lyons in France
135
CHAPTER XI
137
Insufficiency of these against improved means of of fence
138
Examples of the great strength and extent of some ancient fortifications
139
Defensive methods employed by the Ancients 140
140
Progress of the art under the Western Empire
141
Castellated fortifications of the Feudal Period
142
Changes in the art occasioned by the invention of gunpowder
143
Italian school of engineers
144
Spanish school
145
German school
146
French school
147
CHAPTER XII
152
APPENDIX I
161
Books of reference
170
Obstacles as an accessory
210
Copyright

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Page 17 - ... for opening and will be its greatest value, while the various distances from FL to ZTKGL will give the entire history of the width of port opening for corresponding positions of the piston. Very often, however, the width of port is less than the distance OK. In such case draw a line // parallel to LF and at a distance from it equal to the width of the port.
Page 38 - The term advanced works is applied to such works as, placed beyond the outworks, are still in defensive relations with them and the enceinte, by being so brought under the fire of either the enceinte or the outworks that the ground in advance of them will be swept by this fire ; their ditches flanked by it ; and their interior so exposed to it that, if the work were seized by an open assault, the assailant could be driven from it by this fire. They are usually in the form of redans or lunettes, and...
Page ii - Devised and arranged in practical form for the use of the Cadets of the US Military Academy. By HR AGNEL, Professor of French, i vol. 8vo. Cloth, flexible. $3.50. WILLIAMSON. Practical Tables in Meteorology and Hypsometry, in connection with the use of the Barometer.
Page iii - Professor of Civil and Military Engineering, United States Military Academy. Illustrated with full-page and folding plates. Third edition. 8vo, cloth, . . $4.00 PRACTICAL MARINE SURVEYING. By Harry Phelps, US Navy. 8vo, cloth, . . $3.50 AN ABRIDGEMENT OF MILITARY LAW. By Col.
Page 37 - Tenaille. The tenaille is a low work placed in the reentering formed in the enceinte ditch by the curtain and flanks of the bastioned system, being isolated by a ditch between it and these parts of the enceinte. Its chief purpose is to serve as a mask, covering the scarp walls of this reentering from fire, as well as the outlets to the enceinte ditch, which are usually placed in the centre of the curtains.
Page 147 - From the preceding brief summary, it will be seen that the art of fortification, in its progress, has kept pace with the measures of the attack ; its successive changes having been brought about by changes either in the arms used by the assailant, or by the introduction of some new mode of assault. The same causes must continue to produce the same effects. At no past period has mechanical invention, in its bearing on the military art, been more active than at the present day. The...
Page 89 - That the interior space enclosed by the enceinte is greater in the polygonal trace. 2. That the faces of the enceinte are less exposed to ricochet from the greater obtuseness of the salient angles. 3. That the fire of the faces has thus a better bearing on the distant defence. 4. That, requiring fewer fronts on a given extent of line to be fortified, there will be fewer flanks and more artillery therefore disposable for the faces and curtains. 5. That, in the usual mode of attack, the besiegers will...
Page xiv - Have secure and easy means of communication for the movement of the troops, both within the defences and to the exterior. 5th. And, finally, be provided with all such accessory defensive means as the natural features of the position itself may afford, to enable the garrison to dispute with energy the occupancy by the assailant of every point both within and exterior to the defences. The defensive branch of the military engineer's art consists in...

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