Principles of environmental geochemistry
The basic philosophy of PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY is to present chemical principles that are essential for understanding environmental problems and then show how these principles can be applied to real-world problems. The latter goal is achieved by including a number of case studies in each chapter. The book is process oriented, emphasizing the tools needed to understand environmental problems, and is not a recitation of environmental problems and issues. Chemistry topics are developed from first principles and the focus is on those principles that are most useful in the environmental field. This text is more accessible than the larger, higher-level environmental geochemistry books on the market that assume familiarity with chemical and quantitative background material. The topical coverage is broad, including extensive material on the isotopic and mineralogical aspects of environmental issues and a significant chapter on the atmosphere. Case studies are integrated throughout to show the application of the various principles to real-world problems, and many of the very extensive set of end-of-chapter problems encourage students to become familiar with the scientific literature on this subject.
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Calculation of Activity Coefficients
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acid acid mine drainage activity adsorbed adsorption aerosol amount anthropogenic aqueous aquifer atmosphere atoms basin buffering Ca2+ calcite Calculate cations changes Chapter charge chemical chemistry chrysotile clay minerals composition concentration contains decay decrease depth determined diagram dissociation dissolution dissolved Eh-pH electrons elements end members energy environment environmental equation equilibrium constant example factor Fe2+ Fe3+ Figure fraction gases gibbsite groundwater hydrocarbons hydrogen increase input ionic strength ions isotopic kaolinite lake layer ligands marine metals methane molecules moles nitrogen occurs ocean organic carbon organic matter oxidation oxidation-reduction oxygen particles Piper diagram plot pollution precipitation processes proton radioactive radon ratio reaction redox relative released River salinity sample seawater sediments significant silicate silicate minerals smectite soil solubility solution species Study sulfate sulfide sulfur surface waters Table temperature tion tritium types values vapor variations various versus weathering