Masculinity in the modern west: gender, civilization and the body
What does it mean to be a man? To be manly? How has this changed throughout history? This text examines the manly stereotype, which stresses courage and athletic comportment, which from the eighteenth century onwards became representative of normative modern society. By using the ideal of the "man of action" as a focal point, a wide range of hitherto neglected aspects of the male body are brought to the fore, from styles of bodily comportment and medical concerns about health, energy and sexuality to more contemporary issues pertaining to body shape, muscularity, athleticism, and age. This book argues that the loudly proclaimed "crisis" of Western manhood has been marked by attempts to compensate for the gap between the historic bodily ideal of manly action and the banalities of material prosperity and conveniences of modern existence.
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Four Faces of Civilization c 15001750
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American Angus McLaren anxieties become behavior bodily bourgeois Britain British Cambridge Caspar Barlaeus Chicago Press civilizing process claimed comfort concept consumer consumerism consumption corporeal crisis culture discourses duel early modern effeminacy effeminate eighteenth century elites emerging European exercise fantasies fascist feminine feminizing Fight Club Figure France French G.W.F. Hegel gender German History homosexuality hygiene Hypochondria ical ideal identity images imagined Jews John Journal labor less lifestyles London luxury machine male body man's manhood manly manners martial masculinity masturbation mental metrosexual middle-class military modern civilization moral muscular nation nature nineteenth century nobles observed pain Palgrave Paris physical physicians pleasure political popular potential primitive promoted R.W. Connell refined reformers regeneration role Roy Porter sedentary seemed sensual sexual sexual dimorphism social society sodomy soft Steven Shapin suggests tensions threatened tion trans University of Chicago urban violence virility warrior Western women York