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activity Analysis of Behavior animal appetitive behavior aversive avoidance Azrin bar-pressing birds Chapter classical conditioning Comparative and Physiological conditioned reinforcement conditioned stimulus correlated depends deprivation differential reinforcement discrimination ditioned electric shock elicited emotional behavior escape ethological ethologists example experiment Experimental Analysis Experimental Psychology extinction factors Figure fixed action patterns fixed-ratio food reinforcement forcement frequency of reinforcement function goal-box gradients groups havior hypothalamic imprinting increase innate instinct instrumental conditioning involved IRTs Journal of Comparative Journal of Experimental key-pecking learning lever lever-press light maintained ment motivation negative reinforcement number of responses observed obtained occur organism pairing pattern peck performance Physiological Psychology pigeons positive reinforcement presented primary reinforcement procedure produced rate of responding rats reflex rein relation reproduced by permission response rate runway salivation schedules of reinforcement secondary reinforcement seconds sessions situation Skinner species sponse stimulus control subjects suppression tion trials unconditional variable