Combination Tones and Other Related Auditory Phenomena (Google eBook)

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University of Chicago., 1908 - Hearing - 136 pages
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Page 8 - The lower grade of this consciousness is that in which the influence of the sensation in question makes itself felt only in the conceptions we form of external things and processes, and assists in determining them. This can take place without our needing, or indeed being able, to ascertain to what particular part of our sensations we owe this...
Page 89 - Tone, page 155, eg, he considers difference tones up to the sixth ' order,' inclusive. In one place he tells us explicitly that he heard, from siren tones, not only the first summation tones but also those represented by 2p + q and 2q + p.2 These last, he says, were very weak. That summation tones in general are weak, he states both as the result of actual experience and in connection with his theoretical deduction.3 He states explicitly that ' multiple ' combination tones cannot as a rule be distinctly...
Page 21 - Nevertheless I have convinced myself by particular experiments, that even in this instrument the greater part of the force of the combinational tone is generated in the ear itself. I arranged the portvents in the instrument so that one of the two generators was supplied with air by the bellows moved below by the foot, and the second generator was blown by the reserve bellows, which was first pumped full and then cut off by drawing out the so-called expression-stop, and I then found that the combinational...
Page 5 - In other cases when he did hear the theoretical upper partials, they were weaker than the theory required. He concluded that the definition of a simple tone as given by Ohm was too limited, and that not only pendular vibrations, but other vibrational forms, provided they were not too widely separated from the pendular, were capable of exciting in the ear the sensation of a single simple tone, which, however, had a variable quality. He consequently asserted that when a musical tone was compounded...
Page 38 - TT (n2 n2) t. In passing through zero the amplitude changes sign, which is equivalent to a change of phase of 180', if the amplitude be regarded as always positive. This change of phase is readily detected by measurement in drawings traced by machines for compounding vibrations, and it is a feature of great importance. If a force of this character act upon a system whose natural frequency is $ (n, + n^), the effect produced is comparatively small.
Page 39 - On the other hand, where a single vibration is rendered intermittent by the periodic interposition of an obstacle, there is no such change of phase in consecutive revivals. If a force of this character act upon an isochronous system, the effect is indeed less than if there were no intermittence; but as all the impulses operate in the same sense without any antagonism, the response is powerful. An intermittent vibration or force may be represented by...
Page 30 - They are in reality sometimes one way and sometimes the other. Both sets of beats, or both beat-notes, are not usually heard at the same time. If we divide the intervals examined into groups (1) from 1 : 1 to 1 : 2, (2) from 1 : 2 to 1 : 3, (3) from 1 : 3 to 1 : 4, (4) from 1 : 4 to 1 : 5, and so on, the lower beats and beat-tones extend over little more than the lower half of each group, and the upper beats and beat-tones over little more than the upper half. For a short distance in the middle of...
Page 7 - We are accustomed [he says] in a large number of cases where sensations of different kinds, or in different parts of the body, exist simultaneously, to recognize that they are distinct as soon as they are perceived, and to direct our attention at will to any one of them separately. Thus at any moment we can be separately conscious of what we see, of what we hear, of what we feel; and distinguish what we feel in a finger or in the great toe, whether pressure, gentle touch, or warmth.
Page 5 - ... strings, we shall see that in many cases theory informs us beforehand of the nature of the vibration executed by a string, and in particular whether any specified simple vibration is a component or not. Here we have a decisive test. It is found by experiment that, whenever according to theory any simple vibration is present, the corresponding tone can be heard, but, whenever the simple vibration is absent, then the tone cannot be heard. We are therefore justified in asserting that simple tones...
Page 76 - ... loud beats were heard in the ears just as they are ordinarily heard when powerful forks are sounded in the air. The forks were then held in this position until the beats had entirely ceased to be audible, when they were removed, and the stem of each was touched to the wax closing the two ears. Instantly the two notes were heard, faintly but distinctly, in the ears to which they were held, and accompanying them were faint beats seeming to wander in the head from ear to ear, as is always the case...

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