Carranza's Clinical Periodontology (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Elsevier Health Sciences, Feb 14, 2011 - Medical - 872 pages
4 Reviews

The most widely used periodontics text, Carranza's Clinical Periodontology provides both print and online access to basic procedures as well as the latest in advanced procedures and techniques in reconstructive, esthetic, and implant therapy. Not only does this book show how to do periodontal procedures, it describes how to best manage the outcomes and explains the evidence supporting each treatment. Written by leading experts Michael Newman, Henry Takei, Perry Klokkevold, and Fermin Carranza, along with a pool of international contributors, this edition also discusses the close connection between oral health and systemic disease. A new Expert Consult website includes the entire, fully searchable contents of the book, and takes learning to a whole new level with content updates, videos, a drug database, and much more.

  • Comprehensive coverage describes all aspects of periodontics in a single volume, including periodontal pathology, the etiology of periodontal diseases, the relationship between periodontal disease and systemic health, treatment of periodontal diseases, oral implantology, supportive treatment, and ethics, legal, and practical matters.
  • Problem-solving, scenario-based learning opportunities use well-documented case reports to help you learn both basic and advanced procedures and techniques.
  • 'Speed to competence' is enhanced with access to print, online, and mobile platforms.
  • A unique approach combines evidence-based decision-making, science transfer, and classification/nomenclature throughout every chapter.
  • A one-of-a-kind Genetic Factors and Periodontal Disease chapter examines the role of genetic factors in gum disease.
  • In-depth information serves as an excellent foundation in preparing for the National Board Dental Exam.
  • Expert Consult website offers fast, reliable online access to advanced material, videos, an image collection, a drug database, interactive flash cards, multiple-choice test questions, interactive references, and Pathology Consult -- plus, the entire contents of the book are fully searchable.

    1. Find core information in the book; additional, advanced information is provided online.
    2. Consult your book from any computer, anywhere in the world, for the entire life of this edition.
    3. Keep current with regular updates of the latest periodontal news and information.
    4. Follow links from biographical citations to the corresponding MEDLINE abstracts.
    5. See a comprehensive library of pathology photos.
  • Coverage of the latest advances includes the emerging link between periodontal disease and systemic health.
  • Full-color illustrations depict the newest developments in surgical technology.
  • A new Multidisciplinary Approach to Dental and Periodontal Problems chapter discusses the importance of collaborative care in the practice of periodontics.
  • Etiology of Periodontal Diseases (Part 4) provides a more comprehensive background in periodontal anatomy, physiology, and pathogenesis.
  

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very very helpful in the periodontology final clinical exam 4th year dental students demonstrating in figures every thing needed for the exam Read full review

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Contents

Bisphosphonates
SubAntimicrobialDose Doxycycline
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
Mechanisms of Action
Clinical Research Data On Distinct Patient Populations
Suggested Uses and Other Considerations
Emerging Host Modulatory Therapies
Host Modulation Factors in Systemic Disorders

Twentieth Century
History of this Book
Clinical Features
Microscopic Features
Functions
CellBasal Lamina
Correlation of Clinical and Microscopic Features
Effects of Aging on the Periodontium
Effects of Aging on the Progression of Periodontal Diseases
Aging and the Response to Treatment of the Periodontium
Gingival Diseases
Developmental or Acquired Deformities and Conditions
Gingival Diseases
Dental PlaqueInduced Gingival Diseases
NonPlaqueInduced Gingival Lesions
Periodontitis
Chronic Periodontitis
Aggressive Periodontitis
Periodontitis as a Manifestation of Systemic Diseases
Localized ToothRelated Factors That Modify or Predispose to PlaqueInduced Gingival Diseases or Periodontitis
Mucogingival Deformities and Conditions on Edentulous Edges
Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases
Abscesses of the Periodontium
Developmental or Acquired Deformities and Conditions
The Need for Epidemiology
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Etiology
Diagnosis
Sulcular Fluid
Leukocytes in the Dentogingival Area
Saliva
The Initial Lesion
The Early Lesion
The Established Lesion
The Advanced Lesion
Changes in Gingival Contour
Course and Duration
Description
Clinical Findings
Inflammatory Enlargement
DrugInduced Gingival Enlargement
Idiopathic Gingival Enlargement
Enlargements Associated with Systemic Diseases
Neoplastic Enlargement Gingival Tumors
False Enlargement
Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis
Primary Herpetic Gingivostomatitis
Pericoronitis
Periodontium of the Primary Dentition
Periodontal Changes Associated with Normal Development
Gingival Diseases of Childhood
Periodontal Diseases of Childhood
Aggressive Periodontitis
Chronic Periodontitis
Gingival Manifestation of Systemic Disease in Children
Diabetes Mellitus
Leukemias
Oral Mucosa in Childhood Diseases
Summary
Suggested Readings
Periodontium of the Primary Dentition
Periodontal Changes Associated with Normal Development
Relation of Periodontal Status to Malocclusion
Mucogingival Problems
Gingival Diseases of Childhood
NonPlaqueInduced Gingival Lesions
Periodontal Diseases of Childhood
Aggressive Periodontitis
Chronic Periodontitis
Gingival Manifestation of Systemic Disease in Children
Endocrine Disorders and Hormonal Changes
Hematologic Disorders and Immune Deficiencies
Oral Mucosa in Childhood Diseases
Summary
Suggested Readings
Chronic Desquamative Gingivitis
A Systematic Approach
Diseases Clinically Presenting as Desquamative Gingivitis
Drug Eruptions
Miscellaneous Conditions Mimicking Desquamative Gingivitis
Classification
Clinical Features
Pathogenesis
Histopathology
Periodontal Disease Activity
Site Specificity
Relationship of Attachment Loss and Bone Loss to Pocket Depth
Area Between Base of Pocket and Alveolar Bone
Relationship of Pocket to Bone
Periodontal Abscess
Lateral Periodontal Cyst
Bone Destruction Caused by Extension of Gingival Inflammation
Bone Destruction Caused by Trauma from Occlusion
Factors Determining Bone Morphology in Periodontal Disease
Bone Destruction Patterns in Periodontal Disease
Adaptive Capacity of the Periodontium to Occlusal Forces
Trauma from Occlusion
Stages of Tissue Response to Increased Occlusal Forces
Effects of Insufficient Occlusal Force
Influence of Trauma from Occlusion on Progression of Marginal Periodontitis
Pathologic Tooth Migration
Clinical Features
Risk Factors for Disease
Necrotizing Ulcerative Periodontitis
Summary
Localized Aggressive Periodontitis
Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis
Risk Factors for Aggressive Periodontitis
Pathogenesis
Epidemiology and Demographics
Classification and Staging
CDC Surveillance Case Classification
Antiretroviral Therapy
Entry InhibitorCCR5 Coreceptor Antagonist
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Oral and Periodontal Manifestations of Hiv Infection
Oral Candidiasis
Oral Hairy Leukoplakia
Kaposis Sarcoma and Other Malignancies
NonHodgkins Lymphoma
Bacillary Epithelioid Angiomatosis
Oral Hyperpigmentation
Atypical Ulcers
Salivary Gland Disorders and Xerostomia
Dental Treatment Complications
Gingival and Periodontal Diseases
Linear Gingival Erythema
Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis
Necrotizing Ulcerative Periodontitis
Necrotizing Ulcerative Stomatitis
Chronic Periodontitis
Periodontal Treatment Protocol
Infection Control Measures
Goals of Therapy
Maintenance Therapy
Temporomandibular Joint
Muscles and Nerves of the Masticatory System
Centric Relation
Biomechanics of the Masticatory System
Dysfunction and Deterioration
Orofacial Pain
Intracranial Pain Disorders 64 70 78 117 130 136
Axis II Mental Disorders
Comprehensive Evaluation
Diagnostic Decision Making
Acknowledgments
Temporomandibular Joint
Muscles and Nerves of the Masticatory System
Centric Relation
Biomechanics of the Masticatory System
Dysfunction and Deterioration
Orofacial Pain
Intracranial Pain Disorders64 70 78 117 130 136
Intraoral Pain Disorders
Comprehensive Evaluation
Clinical Examination
Imaging
Diagnostic Decision Making
Acknowledgments
Histopathology of Periodontal Disease
Gingival Epithelium
Sulcular Epithelium
Initial Lesion
Early Lesion
Advanced Lesion
Inflammatory Responses in the Periodontium
Linking Pathogenesis to Clinical Signs of Disease
Resolution of Inflammation
Immune Responses in Periodontal Pathogenesis
Concept of Host Susceptibility
Suggested Readings
Calculus
Other Predisposing Factors
The Oral Cavity from A Microbes Perspective
Bacteria and Their Biofilm Mode of Living
Transport to the Surface
Initial Adhesion
Strong Attachment
Factors Affecting Supragingival Dental Plaque Formation
De Novo Subgingival Plaque Formation
Characteristics of Biofilm Bacteria Life in Slime City
Communication Between Biofilm Bacteria
Interactions between Dental Plaque Bacteria
Biofilms and Antimicrobial Resistance
Bacterial Transmission and Translocation
Nonbacterial Inhabitants of The Oral Cavity
Herpesviruses
Papillomaviruses
PicornavirusesEnteroviruses
Retroviruses
Oral Tumors
Periodontitis
Protozoa
Archaea
Specific Plaque Hypothesis
Ecologic Plaque Hypothesis
Complicating Factors
Criteria for Identification of Periodontopathogens
The Transition from Health to Disease
Host Susceptibility
Pathogenic Bacteria
Beneficial Species
Periodontal Health
Gingivitis
Chronic Periodontitis
Localized Aggressive Periodontitis
Aggressive Periodontitis
Abscesses of the Periodontium
Periimplantitis
Virulence Factors of Periodontopathogens
Adhesive Surface Proteins and Fibrils
Factors that Promote Tissue Destruction
Strategies for Evading Host Immunity
Future Advances in Periodontal Microbiology
Genetic and Genomic Methods of the 21st Century
Inherited Variation and Risk of Periodontitis
Inherited Variation and Treatment of Periodontitis
Acknowledgments
References for Table 243
Suggested Reading
Innate Immunity in Periodontal Diseases
Adaptive Immunity in Periodontal Diseases
Pathobiology of Periodontal Disease Progression
Therapeutic Strategies for Disrupting HostCell Signalling in the Treatment of Periodontal Diseases
Suggested Reading
The Smoking Epidemic
Current Smokers
Former Smokers
Effects of Smoking on the Prevalence and Severity of Periodontal Diseases
Questions
Two Final Contentious Points
Set a Quit Date
Nicotine Replacement Therapy NRT
Other Methods
Effects of Smoking on Response to Periodontal Therapy
Effects of Smoking Cessation on Periodontal Treatment Outcomes
References
Endocrine Disorders and Hormonal Changes
Female Sex Hormones
Hyperparathyroidism
Hematologic Disorders and Immune Deficiencies
Neutropenia
Agranulocytosis
The Periodontium in Leukemic Patients
Anemia
Thrombocytopenia
Antibody Deficiency Disorders
Genetic Disorders
Lazy Leukocyte Syndrome
PapillonLefèvre Syndrome
Down Syndrome
Stress and Psychosomatic Disorders
Psychosocial Stress Depression and Coping
StressInduced Immunosuppression
Influence of Stress on Periodontal Therapy Outcomes
Psychiatric Influence of SelfInflicted Injury
Nutritional Influences
FatSoluble Vitamin Deficiency
Vitamin D Deficiency
Vitamin E Deficiency
WaterSoluble Vitamin Deficiency
Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid Deficiency
Possible Etiologic Factors
Epidemiologic Studies
Periodontitis
Summary
Medications
Corticosteroids
Other Systemic Conditions
Congenital Heart Disease
Tetralogy of Fallot
Eisenmengers Syndrome
Hypophosphatasia
Lead Intoxication
Pathobiology of Periodontitis
CardiovascularCerebrovascular System
Focal Infection Theory Revisited
EvidenceBased Clinical Practice
Subgingival Environment as Reservoir Of Bacteria
Periodontal Disease and Mortality
Periodontal Disease and Coronary Heart DiseaseAtherosclerosis
Periodontal Disease and Stroke
Periodontal Infection Associated with Glycemic Control in Diabetes
Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy Outcome
Periodontal Disease and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Periodontal Disease and Acute Respiratory Infections
Periodontal Medicine in Clinical Practice
Patient Education
Summary
Suggested Reading
Semantics
Classification
Bronchi and Lungs
Liver
Systemic Metabolic Disorders
Diagnosis of Malodor
Clinical and Laboratory Examination
Oropharyngeal Examination
Portable Volatile Sulfur Monitor
Gas Chromatography
DarkField or PhaseContrast Microscopy
Saliva Incubation Test
Mechanical Reduction of Intraoral Nutrients and Microorganisms
Chemical Reduction of Oral Microbial Load
Chlorhexidine
Essential Oils
AminefluorideStannous Fluoride
Conversion of Volatile Sulfur Compounds
Toothpastes
Masking the Malodor
First Visit
Second Visit
Laboratory Aids to Clinical Diagnosis
References
Normal Interdental Bone
Radiographic Techniques
Bone Destruction In Periodontal Disease
Radiographic Appearance of Periodontal Disease
Additional Radiographic Criteria
Skeletal Disturbances Manifested in the Jaws
Digital Intraoral Radiography
Advanced Imaging Modalities
Definitions
Risk Factors
Risk Indicators
Risk DeterminantsBackground Characteristics for Periodontal Disease
Risk Indicators for Periodontal Disease
Osteoporosis
Risk MarkersPredictors for Periodontal Disease
Demographic Data
Medical History
Conclusion
Definitions
Overall Clinical Factors
Prosthetic and Restorative Factors
Factors in Determination of Prognosis
Relationship Between Diagnosis and Prognosis
Reevaluation of Prognosis after Phase I Therapy
Master Plan for Total Treatment
Sequence of Therapeutic Procedures
Nonsurgical Phase Phase I Therapy
Surgical Phase Phase II Therapy
Explaining Treatment Plan to the Patient
What does Periodontal Therapy Accomplish?
Factors That Affect Healing
Healing After Periodontal Therapy
Periodontal Reconstruction
Tangible Versus Intangible Benefits
Size of the Treatment Effect
Defining Four Levels of Clinical Significance
Summary
Cardiovascular Diseases
Ischemic Heart Diseases
Congestive Heart Failure
Cardiac Pacemakers and Implantable CardioverterDefibrillators
Infective Endocarditis
Infective Endocarditis Prophylaxis Recommended
Cerebrovascular Accident
Endocrine Disorders
Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders
Adrenal Insufficiency
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Coagulation Disorders
Anticoagulant Medications
Antiplatelet Medications
Thrombocytopenic Purpuras
Nonthrombocytopenic Purpuras
Agranulocytosis
Liver Diseases
Pulmonary Diseases
Medications and Cancer Therapies
AnticoagulantAntiplatelet Therapy
Corticosteroids
Immunosuppression and Chemotherapy
Radiation Therapy
Prosthetic Joint Replacement
Pregnancy
Infectious Diseases
Hepatitis
HIV and AIDS
Tuberculosis
Puberty
Menses
Pregnancy
Subgingival Plaque Composition
Sex Hormone Concentration
Oral Contraceptives
Menopause
Oral Changes
Clinical Management
Conclusion
The Aging Periodontium
Demographics
Health Status
Functional Status
Nutritional Status
Psychosocial Factors
Dentate Status
Periodontal Status
Caries Status
Dental Visits
Xerostomia
Candidiasis
Dental and Medical Assessments
Medical Physical History
Oral Epithelium
Immune System
Periodontal Diseases in Older Adults
Periodontal Treatment Planning
Prevention of Periodontal Disease and Maintenance of Periodontal Health in Older Adults
Antiplaque Agents
Fluoride
Conclusion
Aggressive Periodontitis
Periodontitis Refractory to Treatment
Conclusion
Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis
Acute Pericoronitis
Acute Herpetic Gingivostomatitis
Classification of Abscesses
Acute Abscess
Chronic Abscess
Periodontal Abscess
Specific Treatment Approaches
Antibiotic of Choice
Rationale
Treatment Sessions
Sequence of Procedures
Results
Healing
Decision to Refer for Specialist Treatment
Suggested Readings
The Toothbrush
Powered Toothbrushes
Dentifrices
Toothbrushing Methods
Interdental Cleaning Aids
Gingival Massage
Oral Irrigation
Subgingival Irrigation
Recommendations
Chemical Plaque Control with Oral Rinses
Nonprescription Essential Oil Rinse
Other Products
Disclosing Agents
Frequency of Plaque Removal
Motivation for Effective Plaque Control
Education and Scoring Systems
Plaque Control Record OLeary Index101
Significance of Plaque Scores and Bleeding Scores
Instruction and Demonstration
Recommendations
Summary
Suggested Readings
Classification of Periodontal Instruments
General Principles of Instrumentation
Positioning of Patient and Operator
Condition and Sharpness of Instruments
Instrument Stabilization
Instrument Activation
Instruments for Scaling and Root Planing
Principles of Scaling and Root Planing
Instruments
Technique
Instrument Sharpening
Evaluation of Sharpness
Objective of Sharpening
Sharpening Stones
Principles of Sharpening
Sharpening Individual Instruments
Sharpening the Lateral Surface
Sharpening the Face of the Blade
FlatBladed Gingivectomy Knives
Stationary Stone Technique
Stationary Instrument Technique
Mechanism of Action of Power Scalers
Type and Benefit of Power Instruments
Clinical Outcomes of PowerDriven Instruments
Special Considerations
Principles of Instrumentation
HomeSelfApplied Irrigation
Mechanism of Action of Irrigation
Clinical Outcomes of Irrigation
Individuals with Special Considerations
Summary
Definitions
Systemic Administration of Antibiotics
Serial and Combination Antibiotic Therapy
Local Delivery Agents
Local Delivery of Antimicrobial Agents and Periimplant MucositisImplantitis
Conclusion
Introduction
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
Summary
Pathogenesis
EvidenceBased Decision Making
Terminology
Occlusal Function and Dysfunction
Parafunction
Temporomandibular Disorders Screening Evaluation
Testing For Mobility Of Teeth
Centric Relation Assessment
Evaluation of Excursions
Articulated Diagnostic Casts
Occlusal Therapy
Summary
Benefits of Orthodontic Therapy
Preorthodontic Osseous Surgery
ThreeWall Intrabony Defects
Orthodontic Treatment of Osseous Defects
Orthodontic Treatment of Gingival Discrepancies
Significant Abrasion and Overeruption
Open Gingival Embrasures
Summary
Introduction
Case Report
Treatment
Reevaluation
Orthodontic Therapy
Implant Therapy
Periodontal Maintenance
Results and Discussion
References
Biologic Effects of Pulpal Infection on Periodontal Tissues
Biologic Effects of Periodontal Infection on Dental Pulp
Differential Diagnosis of Pulpal and Periodontal Infection
Treatment Considerations of EndodonticPeriodontic Lesions
Factors Initiating Pulpal and Periradicular Diseases
Classification of Pulpal Diseases
Classification of Periradicular Diseases
Anatomic Considerations of the Pulpal and Periodontal Continuum
Biologic Effects of Pulpal Infection on Periodontal Tissues
Biologic Effects of Periodontal Infection on the Dental Pulp
Differential Diagnosis of Pulpal and Periodontal Infection
Patients Subjective Symptoms
Coronal Integrity
Radiographic Appearance
Vitality
Treatment Considerations of EndodonticPeriodontic Lesions
Endodontic Procedural Complications and the Effects on the Periodontium
Perforations
Tooth Fractures
CrownRoot Fractures
Horizontal Root Fractures
Horizontal Fractures in the Coronal Area
Horizontal Fractures in the Midroot Area
Horizontal Fractures in the Apical Area
Definition
Incidence
Clinical Findings
Sodium Hypochlorite Accident
Resorptive Defects
Dental Anomalies
Dens Invaginatus
Dens Evaginatus
Lingual Groove
Ultrasonic Devices
Objectives of the Surgical Phase
Pocket Reduction Surgery
Pocket Elimination Versus Pocket Maintenance
Reevaluation After Phase I Therapy
Indications for Periodontal Surgery
Methods of Pocket Therapy
Mandible
Maxilla
Exostoses
Muscles
Anatomic Spaces
Outpatient Surgery
Instructions for _____________ Patients Name
Treatment of Sensitive Roots
Desensitizing Agents
Agents Used by the Patient
Hospital Periodontal Surgery
Patient Convenience
Patient Preparation
Positioning and Periodontal Dressing
Excisional and Incisional Instruments
Electrosurgery Radiosurgery Techniques and Instrumentation
Surgical Curettes and Sickles
Surgical Chisels
Tissue Forceps
Needleholders
Rationale for Sedation During Periodontal and Implant Surgical Procedures
ADA Policy Statement and Guidelines for Conscious Sedation
ADA Policy Statement and Guidelines for Conscious Sedation
The Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists
ADA Guidelines for the Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists
Adult Sedation
Clinical Guidelines for Minimal and Moderate Sedation
Able to Answer Three Simple Questions Such as the Following
Ambulation
Mild SedationAnxiolysis
Guidelines for Mild Sedation with Oral Medications
Inhalation Sedation
Moderate Conscious Sedation
Moderate Parental Sedation Course
Oral Sedation
Combined Oral and Inhalation Sedation
Combination Intravenous Sedation
Fentanyl Combined with Midazolam
Combined Oral and Intravenous Sedation
Sedation Failures
Emergency Preparedness
Suggested Readings
Gingival Curettage
Gingivectomy
Gingivectomy by Electrosurgery
Laser Gingivectomy
Gingivectomy by Chemosurgery
Summary
Classification of Flaps
Flap Design
Incisions
Elevation of the Flap
Suturing Techniques
Nonabsorbable Nonresorbable
Synthetic
Technique
Ligation
Types of Sutures
Chronic Inflammatory Enlargement
Periodontal and Gingival Abscesses
Leukemic Gingival Enlargement
Gingival Enlargement in Pregnancy
Gingival Enlargement in Puberty
Recurrence of Gingival Enlargement
Overview
Modified Widman Flap
Undisplaced Flap
Apically Displaced Flap
Flaps for Reconstructive Surgery
Distal Molar Surgery
Selection of Treatment Technique
Normal Alveolar Bone Morphology
Terminology
Factors in Selection of Resective Osseous Surgery
Examination and Treatment Planning
Methods of Resective Osseous Surgery
Osseous Resection Technique
Vertical Grooving
Flattening Interproximal Bone
Gradualizing Marginal Bone
Postoperative Maintenance
Specific Osseous Reshaping Situations
Summary
Evaluation of New Attachment and Periodontal Reconstruction
Clinical Methods
Radiographic Methods
Surgical Reentry
Histologic Methods
NonBone GraftAssociated Procedures
Citric Acid
Fibronectin
Autogenous Bone Grafts
Bone Blend
Cancellous Bone Marrow Transplants
Bone Swaging
Iliac Autografts
Allografts
Xenografts
Nonbone Graft Materials
Plaster of Paris
Bioactive Glass
CoralDerived Materials
Enamel Matrix Proteins
Combined Techniques
For Deep WellContained Defect
Clinical Case Reports
Ridge Augmentation
Sinus Augmentation
Summary
Etiologic Factors
Local Anatomic Factors
Anatomy of the Bony Lesions
Indices of Furcation Involvement
Treatment
Oral Hygiene Procedures
Scaling and Root Planing
Surgical Therapy
Which Root to Remove
Prognosis
Terminology
Objectives
Etiology of Marginal Tissue Recession
Factors That Affect Surgical Outcome
Techniques to Increase Attached Gingiva
Gingival Augmentation Apical to Recession
Free Connective Tissue Autografts
Apically Displaced Flap
Other Techniques
The Classic Technique
Laterally Horizontally Displaced Pedicle Flap
Variant Techniques
Accomplishments of Pedicle Autograft
Coronally Displaced Flap
Techniques to Deepen The Vestibule
Techniques to Remove the Frenum
Procedure
Techniques to Improve Esthetics
Root Coverage Gingival augmentation coronal to the recession
Therapy to Correct Excessive Gingival Display
Surgical Techniques
Osseous Surgery
Tissue Engineering
Criteria for Selection of Techniques
Surgical Site Free of Plaque Calculus and Inflammation
Stability of the Grafted Tissue to the Recipient Site
Conclusion
Suggested Readings
Surgical Techniques
Tissue Engineering Alternatives for Mucogingival Procedures
Microsurgery
Periodontal Microsurgery
Lasers in Periodontics
Precautions before and during Irradiation
The Surgical Microscope
Philosophy of Periodontal Microsurgery
Advantages of Microsurgery
Microsurgical Sutures
Esthetic Periodontal Microsurgery
Precise Tailoring
Delicate Tissue Manipulation
Microsurgical Knots
Conclusion
Wavelength and Energy Absorption
Laser Applications for Periodontal Procedures
Periodontal Esthetic and Functional Crown Lengthening
Lasers in Management of Periodontal Disease
Conclusion
Suggested Readings
Rationale for Therapy
Sequence of Treatment
Control of Active Disease
Control of Active Disease
Scaling and Root Planing
Periodontal Surgery
Adjunctive Orthodontic Therapy
Indications
Conclusion
Biologic Considerations
Esthetic Tissue Management
Correcting Open Gingival Embrasures Restoratively
Managing Gingival Embrasure Form for Patients with Gingival Recession
Pontic Design
Occlusal Considerations in Restorative Therapy
Special Restorative Considerations
Suggested Readings
Educational Trends Toward Multidisciplinary Specialist Education in Implant Treatment
The Future
Implant Geometry Macrodesign
Endosseous Implants
Root Form Implants
Transmandibular Implants
Subperiosteal Implants
Implant Surface Characteristics Microdesign
Hard Tissue Interface
Soft Tissue Interface
Clinical Comparison of Teeth and Implants
Conclusion
Case Types and Indications
Pretreatment Evaluation
Alveolar Bone
Interocclusal Space
Risk Factors and Contraindications
Posttreatment Evaluation
Conclusion
Standard Projections
CrossSectional Imaging
Interactive Simulation Software Programs
Patient Evaluation
Maxilla
Clinical Selection of Diagnostic Imaging
Conclusion
General Principles of Implant Surgery
TwoStage Submerged Implant Placement
Flap Design Incisions and Elevation
Implant Site Preparation
Clinical Situation 1
Clinical Situation 3
Flap Closure and Suturing
Simple Circular Punch or Crestal Incision
PartialThickness Repositioned Flap
Postoperative Care
OneStage Nonsubmerged Implant Placement
Flap Design Incisions and Elevation
Postoperative Care
Suggested Readings
Guided Bone Regeneration
Barrier Membranes
Bone Graft Materials
Autogenous Bone
Flap Management
Horizontal Bone Augmentation
Simultaneous Implant Placement
Complications
Delayed Implant Placement
Staged Implant Placement
Immediate Implant Placement
Conclusion
Maxillary Sinus Elevation and Bone Augmentation
Local Factors
Clinical Perspective 1
SupracrestalVertical Bone Augmentation
Growth Factors in Bone Augmentation
Conclusion
Surgical Strategy for Predictable Esthetics
Determine the Level of Surgical Esthetic Goal
Visualize the Final Outcome
Always Overbuild Bone and Soft Tissue in Augmentation Surgeries
Surgical Management of Difficult Cases Minimally Invasive Approach
Case Presentation 1
Treatment Objectives
Surgical Strategy for Predictable Esthetics
Treatment Plan and Rationale
Treatment Sequence
Results
Case Presentation 2
Treatment Objectives
Surgical Strategy for Predictable Esthetics
Treatment Sequence
Surgical Procedure
Results
Case Presentation 3
Treatment Objectives
Treatment Plan and Rationale
Results
Conclusion
Suggested Readings
Implant Microsurgery
Conclusion
Bone Operating Mode
Root Operating Mode
Clinical Classification
Clinical Characteristics of Ultrasonic Cutting
Clinical Applications
Crown Lengthening
Tooth Extraction Techniques
Implant Site Preparation
Sinus Lift
Ridge Expansion
Bone Harvesting
Block Harvesting Technique
Conclusion
Suggested Readings
ComputerAssisted Implant Surgery
Conclusion
Biomechanical Considerations
LoadBearing Capacity
Cantilever Forces
Treatment Planning with Dental Implants
Edentulous Maxilla
Edentulous Mandible
Multiple Tooth Sites
Single Tooth Sites
Strategies to Avoid Implant Overload
Conclusion
Definition of Implant Survival and Implant Success
Types and Prevalence of Implant Complications
Different Types of Dental Implants
Surgical Complications
Biologic Complications
Complications Related to Augmentation Procedures
Sinus Bone Augmentation
Immediate Implant Placement
Immediate Loading After Implant Placement
Implant Placement using a Flapless Approach
Prosthetic or Mechanical Complications
Implant Fracture
Fracture of Restorative Materials
Esthetic and Phonetic Complications
Phonetic Problems
Conclusion
Rationale for Supportive Periodontal Treatment
Maintenance Program
Treatment
Classification of Posttreatment Patients
Referral of Patients to the Periodontist
Tests for Disease Activity
Maintenance for Dental Implant Patients
Prevention and Treatment of Gingivitis
Prevention and Treatment of Loss of Attachment
Tooth Mortality
Summary
Defining Implant Outcomes
Factors that Influence Implant Outcomes
Esthetic Results and Patient Satisfaction
Conclusion
Background and Definition
Principles of EvidenceBased Decision Making
Need for EvidenceBased Decision Making
Assimilating Evidence into Practice
EvidenceBased DecisionMaking Process and Skills
The PICO Process
Searching for and Acquiring the Evidence
Levels of Evidence
Sources of Evidence
Appraising the Evidence
Common Ways Used to Report Results
Evaluating the Outcomes
Twelve Tools for Assessing Evidence
2 Dont Trust Biologic Plausibility
3 What Level of Controlled Evidence Is Available?
4 Did the Cause Precede the Effect?
5 No Betting on the Horse after the Race Is Over
6 What Is a Clinically Relevant Pretrial Hypothesis?
7 Size Does Matter
8 Is There Even One Different Explanation that Works as Well or Better?55
9 Was the Study Properly Randomized?
10 When to Rely on Nonrandomized Evidence?
Real or Sham?
12 Was There Protection Against Conflict of Interest?
Conclusion
Variation in Clinical Decisions
Managing Uncertainty
Incorporating Evidence into Practice
Linking Outcomes With Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Treatment
Implementing EvidenceBased Decisions
Change Management
Definitions
Common Periodontal Malpractice Issues
Legal Elements of Malpractice
Informed Consent
Beneficence
Abandonment
Record Keeping
Practical Components in Litigation
Mediation Versus Arbitration
Binding Arbitration Agreements
Malpractice Insurance
Avoidance of Lawsuits
Peer Review
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
History
Dental Insurance
Principles
Classification of Programs
Benefits Design
Balance Billing
Coordination of Benefits
Alternate Benefits
Exclusions
Adjudication
Attachments
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
Most Common Errors
Conclusion
Dental PlaqueInduced Gingival Diseases
NonPlaqueInduced Gingival Lesions
Chronic Periodontitis Figures 86103 to 86108
Aggressive Periodontitis Figures 86114 to 86119
Periodontitis as a Manifestation of Systemic Diseases
Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases
Abscesses of the Periodontium
Periodontitis Associated with Endodontic Lesions
Developmental or Acquired Deformities and Conditions
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
Copyright

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