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abbot administration Amorium Armenian Asia Minor Asiatic attack Bardas Basil bishops Bulgarian Byzantine army Byzantine empire Byzantine government caliph capital Cedrenus Charlemagne Cherson Christian church civilisation clergy command commenced compelled conduct conquest Constantine Constantine IX Constantinople council court Crete Crumn death declared defeated Eastern Empire ecclesiastical emperor empress enemy favour fleet frontier Genesius gold Greece Greek historians Iconoclasts Ignatius image-worship imperial influence inhabitants invaded Irene Isaurian John John the Grammarian Leo Diaconus Leo's ment Michael Michael III military Mohammedan monastery monks nations Nicephorus Niketas opinions orthodox palace papal party Patriarch Patzinaks Paulicians Phokas Photius plunder political Pope population Porphyr possession prisoners provinces rank ravaged rebellion reforms reign religious rendered Roman empire Rome Russians Saracens Sclavonian sent Sicily Skleros slaves society sovereign Symeon Mag Tarasios theme Theodore Studita Theoktistos Theophanes Theophilus Thessalonica Thrace throne tion troops victory wealth Zonaras
Page 317 - AD 886-91».] rugged precipice. This citadel is now called the Seven Towers. Two ravines, running to the sea from the rocky base of the acropolis, serve as ditches to the western and eastern walls of the city, which to this day follow the same line, and present nearly the same aspect as in the reign of Leo the Philosopher. Their angles at the sea, where they join the wall along the port, are strengthened by towers of extraordinary size. The Egnatian Way, which for many centuries served as the high-road...
Page 10 - From these considerations I should have abandoned without regret the Greek slaves and their servile historians, had I not reflected that the fate of the Byzantine monarchy is passively connected with the most splendid and important revolutions which have changed the state of the world.
Page 12 - I. (Comnenus,) in 1057, to the conquest of the Byzantine empire by the Crusaders, in 1204. This is the true period of the decline and fall of the Eastern Empire. It commenced by a rebellion of the great nobles of Asia, who effected an internal revolution in the Byzantine empire by wrenching the administration out of the hands of well-trained officials, and destroying the responsibility created by systematic procedure. A despotism supported by personal influence soon ruined the scientific fabric which...
Page 10 - The contest concerning image-worship, from the prevalence of ecclesiastical ideas, became the expression of this struggle. Its object was as much to consolidate the supremacy of the imperial authority, as to purify the practice of the church. The emperors wished to constitute themselves the fountains of ecclesiastical as completely as of civil legislation.
Page 393 - CHESNEY— THE EXPEDITION FOR THE SURVEY OF THE RIVERS EUPHRATES and TIGRIS, carried on by order of the British Government, in the Years 1835, 1836, and 1837.
Page 154 - Armenian, by separating him in an unusual degree from the ruling classes in the empire — for he was, like Michael, of a very low rank in society— caused him to be regarded as a friend of the people ; and all the subject races in the empire espoused his cause, which in many provinces took the form of an attack on the Roman administration, rather than of a revolution to place a new emperor on the throne2.
Page 192 - Every rank of society at last proclaimed that it was weary of religious discussion and domestic strife. Indifference to the ecclesiastical questions so long predominant, produced indifference to religion itself, and the power of conscience became dormant ; enjoyment was soon considered the object of life ; and vice, under the name of pleasure, became the fashion of the day. In this state of society, of which the germs were visible in the reign of Theophilus, superstition was sure to be more powerful...
Page 106 - This circumstance had brought about regular exchanges of prisoners as early as the reign of Constantine V., AD 769 -. In the year 797, a new clause was inserted in a treaty for the exchange of prisoners, binding the contracting parties to release all supernumerary captives, on the payment of a fixed sum for each individual 3.
Page 112 - ... (Finlay, ii. p. 97). Nicephorus "eagerly pursued the centralizing policy of his iconoclast predecessors, and strove to render the civil power supreme over the clergy and the Church. He forbade the Patriarch to hold any communications with the Pope, whom he considered as the Patriarch of Charlemagne ; and this prudent measure has caused much of the virulence with which his memory has been attacked by ecclesiastical and orthodox historians.