Observing Interaction: An Introduction to Sequential Analysis

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, Mar 13, 1997 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 207 pages
0 Reviews
Mothers and infants exchanging gleeful vocalizations, married couples discussing their problems, children playing, birds courting, and monkeys fighting all have this in common: their interactions unfold over time. Almost anyone who is interested can observe and describe such phenomena. However, scientists usually demand more than a desription--they want observations that are replicable and amenable to scientific analysis, while still faithful to the dynamics of the phenomena studied. This book provides a straightforward introduction to scientific methods for observing social behavior. The second edition clarifies and extends material from the first edition, especially with respect to data analysis. A common standard for sequential data is introduced and sequential analysis is placed on firmer, log-linear statistical footing. The second edition is designed to work as a companion volume to Analyzing Interaction (1995). Because of the importance of time in the dynamics of social interaction, sequential approaches to analyzing and understanding social behavior are emphasized. An advanced knowledge of statistical analysis is not required. Instead, the authors present fundamental concepts and offer practical advice.
  

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

Introduction
1
12 Alternatives to systematic observation
2
13 Systematic observation defined
3
Partens study of childrens play
4
15 Social process and sequential analysis
6
Smiths study of parallel play
7
Bakeman and Brownlees study of parallel play
8
18 Hypothesisgenerating research
12
53 State sequences
83
54 Timedevent sequences
84
55 Interval sequences
85
56 Crossclassified events
87
57 Transforming representations
88
58 Summary
90
Analyzing sequential data First steps
91
62 Rates and frequencies
92

Systematic is not always sequential
13
Developing a coding scheme
15
22 What is the question?
16
23 Physically versus socially based coding schemes
17
24 Detectors versus informants
22
26 Keeping it simple
23
27 Splitting and lumping
24
28 Mutually exclusive and exhaustive codes
26
29 The evolution of a coding system
27
Interaction of prehatched chickens
28
Childrens conversations
30
Baby behavior codes
33
Childrens object struggles
34
Monkeys activities
35
215 Summary
36
Recording behavioral sequences
38
33 Continuous versus intermittent recording
39
34 Coding events
40
35 Recording onset and offset times
43
36 Timing pattern changes
45
37 Coding intervals
46
38 Crossclassifying events
49
Time sampling
50
310 The pleasures of pencil and paper
52
312 Summary
55
Assessing observer agreement
56
42 Reliability versus agreement
59
43 The problem with agreement percentages
60
44 The advantages of Cohens kappa
62
45 Agreement about unitizing
68
Examples using Cohens kappa
71
47 Generalizability theory
75
48 Unreliability as a research variable
79
49 Summary
80
Representing observational data
81
52 Event sequences
82
63 Probabilities and percentages
93
64 Mean event durations
94
An introduction
95
66 Summary
99
Analyzing event sequences
100
72 Determining significance of particular chains
101
73 Transitional probabilities revisited
103
74 Computing z scores and testing significance
108
75 Classic lag sequential methods
111
76 Loglinear approaches to lagsequential analysis
116
77 Computing Yules Q or phi and testing for individual differences
127
78 Summary
132
Issues in sequential analysis
136
82 Stationarity
138
83 Describing general orderliness
139
84 Individual versus pooled data
141
85 How many data points are enough?
144
86 The type I error problem
147
87 Summary
148
Analyzing time sequences
150
92 Taking time into account
151
93 Micro to macro
153
94 Timeseries analysis
154
95 Autocorrelation and timeseries analysis
167
96 Summary
175
Analyzing crossclassified events
177
A simple example
179
103 Summary
182
Epilogue
184
112 Soskin and John on marital interaction
185
113 Marital interaction research since 1963
188
A Pascal program to compute kappa and weighted kappa
194
References
198
Index
205
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

References to this book

All Book Search results »

About the author (1997)

Roger Bakeman is professor emeritus in the Psychology Department at Georgia State University. A graduate of Antioch College, Bakeman earned his PhD from the University of Texas, Austin in 1973 and previously worked in computer programming at the Yale University Computer Center and at the Brookings Institution. He is a fellow of the American Psychology Association and the Association for Psychological Science and has served as program co-chair for biennial meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and the International Conference of Infant Studies (ICIS). For the National Institutes of Health (NIH), he served on the Advisory Board for the Study of Early Child Care, the Advisory Committee for the Division of Research Grants and on various review panels. He was an associate editor for Infancy and has served on editorial boards for Behavior Research Methods, Child Development, Developmental Psychology, Infant Behavior and Development and Psychological Methods. He is author, with John M. Gottman, of Observing Interaction: An Introduction to Sequential Analysis; with Vicenc Quera, of Analyzing Interaction: Sequential Analysis with SDIS and GSEQ; and with Byron F. Robinson, of Understanding Statistics in the Behavioral Sciences and Understanding Log-linear Analysis with ILOG. He has consulted widely, primarily on topics related to infant and child typical and atypical development and health matters.

John M. Gottman, Ph.D.

Bibliographic information