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actual secondary stresses Ammann average stress bottom chord bottom fibers bridge members butt joint calculated and measured calculated secondary stresses calculated stresses calculated values cantilever chord members comparison compression compression members computed secondary stresses conclusions connection consideration cross-section dead load deflections diagonals diaphragm difference direct stress drift-pins effect elastic limit engineering equations erection stages error floor-beams Gate Arch Bridge gauge length gauge points Gustav Lindenthal Hell Gate Arch Hell Gate Bridge holes Howard instrument investigation kips large secondaries lower chord maximum primary stresses measured secondary stresses measured stresses measured values ments micrometer modulus of elasticity observed obtained outer fibers panel load panel points paper percentage pins Plate XLIV Professor Parcel readings rivets Sciotoville Bridge span splice Stage 3-H statically indeterminate steel strain gauge stress measurements structure temperature three-faced joints three-hinged tion truss unit stresses upper chord variation vertical writer