Observation in the language classroom
This book provides an account of classroom observation in a historical and educational perspective. Drawing on extracts from classic studies in this field, Dick Allwright reviews the development of research and experiment since the 1970's. The book thus not only provides a background to recent research, but also identifies areas for future development. Stress is laid on the link to be made between practice and research and it is argued that policy-making. either at classroom or institutional level, is heavily dependent on descriptive accounts of classroom reality.
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Observation arrives as a feedback tool in teacher training
First alternatives to Flanders
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activities Allwright asked attitudes audio-lingual Audio-Lingual Method category system Chapter classroom behaviour classroom interaction classroom language learning classroom research cloze coded communications cooperating teachers course developed discourse discussion drill English error evaluate example Fanselow Flanders system Flanders tradition FLint FOCUS foreign language student foreign language teachers Igor Igor's input instruction interaction analysis interest interpretation involved language class Language Contact language student teachers language teaching lesson linguistic lockstep matrix measures mediums methodological comparisons Moskowitz moves observational data observational systems paper participants patterns pedagogical Pennsylvania Project perhaps Politzer possible practice Prescription and Description problem procedures pupils question recorded Rothfarb score second language acquisition settings solicit strategies student talk systematic classroom observation T-unit target language task teacher talk teacher training teaching behaviors teaching methods techniques TESOL thirteenth of January topic training in interaction turn types utterance variables verbal behavior